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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 32-38

Effect of pore size and morphology of activated charcoal prepared from midribs of Elaeis guineensis on adsorption of poisons using metronidazole and Escherichia coli O157:H7 as a case study


1 Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, P.M.B. 12003 Lagos, Nigeria; School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 4300 Semenyih, Malaysia
2 School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science, University of Nottingham Campus, Jalan Broga, 4300 Semenyih, Malaysia
3 Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, P.M.B. 12003 Lagos, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Margaret O Ilomuanya
Department of Pharmaceutics and Phar-maceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, P.M.B.12003, Idi-Araba Surulere, Lagos, Nigeria

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.1016/j.jmau.2016.05.001

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Agricultural waste obtained from Elaeis guineensis mid ribs can provide a veritable source of materials which can be used as precursor materials for the production of pharmaceutical grade activated charcoal. The pore size and surface morphology of activated charcoal defines the types of molecules that could be adsorbed unto it, as surface morphology plays a significant role in determining the surface availability and areas of adsorption. The activated charcoal samples prepared from Elaeis guineensis via either physical or chemical activation was characterized via surface area using the BET method and subsequently pore structure and size analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Physically activated Elaeis guineensis fronds activated with nitrogen gas had wide spread microporosity with micropore volume of 0.232 cc/g compared to the chemically activated with 1M and 3M phosphoric acid respectively. The commercial activated charcoal/metronidazole combination in the in vitro-pharmacodynamic model reflected no re-growth after 4 hours, however for charcoal formulated from Elaeis guineensis via chemical activation with 3M phosphoric acid and metronidazole no regrowth was seen at the second hour and this was maintained throughout the duration of the experiment. Increased macroporosity enhanced bacterial adsorption and this was further facilitated by the presence of antibacterial metronidazole in the in vitro pharmacodynamic model. Activated charcoal produced from agricultural waste obtained from Elaeis guineensis dried mid ribs consisting of increased macroporosity with mixed meso/micro porosity and antibacterial metronidazole form the best model for bacterial adsorption and will be useful in the treatment of diarrhea caused by E. coli O157:H7.


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