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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 206-215

Evaluation of the safety of conventional lighting replacement by artificial daylight


1 Department of Basic Health Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, 51452 Buraydah, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Basic Health Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, 51452 Buraydah, Saudi Arabia; Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Al-Neelain University, Development and Innovation Center, Tabil Food Industries, Khartoum, Sudan
3 Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Alzaeim Alazhari University, Khartoum North, ; Faculty of Radiological Sciences and Nuclear Medicine, National Ribat University, Khartoum, Sudan
4 Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Arts, Almethnab, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia
5 Department of Histology and Embryology, Medical Faculty, Ondokuz Mayis University, 55139, Samsun, Turkey
6 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
7 Faculty of Radiological Sciences and Nuclear Medicine, National Ribat University, Khartoum, Sudan

Correspondence Address:
Paul F Seke Etet
Department of Basic Health Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, P.O. Box 6699, 51452 Buraydah
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.1016/j.jmau.2017.05.005

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Background: Short morning exposure to high illuminance visible electromagnetic radiations termed as artificial daylight is beneficial for the mental health of people living in geographical areas with important seasonal changes in daylight illuminance. However, the commercial success of high illuminance light sources has raised the question of the safety of long hour exposure. Methods: We have investigated the effect of the replacement of natural daylight by artificial daylight in Swiss mice raised under natural lighting conditions. Mice were monitored for neurotoxicity and general health changes. They were submitted to a battery of conventional tests for mood, motor and cognitive functions' assessment on exposure day (ED) 14 and ED20. Following sacrifice on ED21 due to marked signs of neurotoxicity, the expression of markers of inflammation and apoptosis was assessed in the entorhinal cortex and neurons were estimated in the hippocampal formation. Results: Signs of severe cognitive and motor impairments, mood disorders, and hepatotoxicity were observed in animals exposed to artificial daylight on ED20, unlike on ED14 and unlike groups exposed to natural daylight or conventional lighting. Activated microglia and astrocytes were observed in the entorhinal cortex, as well as dead and dying neurons. Neuronal counts revealed massive neuronal loss in the hippocampal formation. Conclusions: These results suggest that long hour exposure to high illuminance visible electromagnetic radiations induced severe alterations in brain function and general health in mice partly mediated by damages to the neocortex-entorhinal cortex-hippocampus axis. These findings raise caution over long hour use of high illuminance artificial light.


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