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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 153-164

Effect of suramin on renal proximal tubular cells damage induced by cisplatin in rats (histological and immunohistochemical study)

Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt; Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Eman Ali El-Kordy
Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_21_19

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Background: Renal toxicity is the most common complication of cispaltin therapy that has broad-spectrum antitumor activity against a variety of human solid tumor. Suramin, a Food and Drug Administration-approved old drug is a polysulfonated compound of napthylurea originally designed to treat trypanosomiasis. Aim: The current work aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of different doses of suramin against cisplatin-induced renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) damage. Material and Methods: Fifty adult male rats were used and divided into five equal groups. Group I served as a control, group II received suramin alone (10 mg/kg). Groups III, IV and V were administered cisplatin once (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) alone or combined with low dosage suramin (5 mg/kg) or high dosage suramin (10 mg/kg) once intravenously respectively. Results: Compared with control rats, cisplatin administration caused proximal tubules damage, RPTCs vacuolation with pyknotic nuclei, loss of brush border and widespread caspase-3 immunostaining. Cisplatin-induced RPTCs toxicity was further confirmed morphometrically (a significantly decreased proximal tubular epithelium height and increased mean number of caspase-3-immunopositive cells). These changes were accompanied by biochemical alteration manifested as a significant increase of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine. Simultaneous administration of high-dose but not low-dose suramin to the cisplatin-treated rats improved the deleterious morphological and morphometrical effects on RPTCs and restored the aforementioned biochemical parameters to control values. Conclusion: In conclusion suramin in a dose dependant manner protects RPTCs from damage induced by cisplatin.

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