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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-September 2020
Volume 8 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 81-133

Online since Thursday, September 10, 2020

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Correlation of p53 expression with histopathological and immunohistochemical features of human papillomavirus in oral leukoplakia p. 81
Dhirendra Gururaj Sirur, Avinash Tamgadge, Sandhya Tamgadge, Sudhir Bhalerao, Pavan Kumar Gujjar
Background: Oral cancer is strongly associated with the habit of tobacco chewing, alcohol, and betel quid consumption in India. However, sometimes, majority of the population develop oral cancer without exposure to these risk factors and are sometimes cautious about their fitness, suggesting that additional causes such as genetic predisposition, diet, and viral agents may be associated which need to explored. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to establish a possible correlation between clinical types of leukoplakia with their histopathological features of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the presence or absence of HPV and expression of p53through immunohistochemistry (IHC). Materials and Methods: Sample comprised of 40 cases of leukoplakia and 10 cases as control group. Three sections were prepared from each biopsy and subjected to IHC and hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stain, respectively. IHC-stained slides were used to evaluate the expression of p53 and HPV and then correlated with the features of HPV infection using H and E staining. Chi-square test with a statistical analysis software package (SPSS software Version 20.0) was used. Observation and Results: The P value for p53 against HPV (IHC) was 0.012, which indicates a significant difference between positivity proportion of P53 and HPV (IHC), whereas the P value for koilocyte and HPV (IHC) is 0.311, which is nonsignificant and indicates no significance of difference between proportion of positivity between koilocyte and HPV (IHC). Conclusion: The expression of p53 was proportionally significant to the expression of positivity of HPV, but there was no significant association between koilocyte and p53 expression.
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Changing frequency of glomerular diseases in Western Saudi Arabia: A 26-year experience p. 89
Sawsan Mohammad Jalalah
Introduction: The frequency of glomerulonephritis (GN) is reported to be changing in the world over the past four decades. Few studies arise from the western region of Saudi Arabia. Aims: The aim of this study was to address the frequency of primary GN (1ry GN) and secondary GN (2ry GN) over a period of 26 years in the western region of Saudi Arabia and compare to previous data from other regions of the country. Subjects and Methods: The records of adult renal biopsies, 448 1ry GN and 263 2ry GN, are analyzed. Frequencies of GN subtypes are compared for period 1 (1988–19999) and period 2 (2000–2013). Results: Postinfectious GN (PIGN) and minimal change disease (MCD) show significant changes (P ≤ 0.05). PIGN increased to 6.5% in period 2 from 0% in period 1. MCD decreased to 5.9% in period 2 from 13.5% in period 1. Membranous GN is the most common 1ry GN for both periods with similar percentages (23.8% and 24.2%, respectively). Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGSC) is the second in period 2 (23%); immunoglobulin A nephropathy at 9.6% became the third, and MCD is the last place instead of the fourth in period 1. Lupus nephritis is the most common 2ry GN. Pooled data from Saudi studies show FSGSC the most common 1ry GN in both periods. Conclusions: The western region of Saudi Arabia presents with a different 1ry GN pattern than the rest of the country that is likely attributed to its unique geographical and environmental characteristics.
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Ameliorating effects of ginger on isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction in rats and its impact on cardiac nitric oxide p. 96
Mohammed Ahmed Hassanien
Background: Myocardial infarction is a major heart disease and is considered a significant reason for mortality and morbidity around the world. The model of Isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction provides a supported method for investigating the impacts of numerous possible cardioprotective bioactive substances. Nitric Oxide (NO) could react with reactive oxygen intermediates and free radicals to create harmful species. For several years, researchers have investigated the use of herbs and natural products as antioxidants to protect the body's organs against toxins and drug metabolites. However, studies on the antioxidant effects of ginger against cardiotoxicity induced by drugs and toxic agents remain insufficient, especially its effects on NO. Aims and Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the possible antioxidant and protective role of ginger in ISO-induced acute myocardial infarction in experimental rats. Special emphasis was given to the impact of ginger on NO levels. Materials and Methods: Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into four equal groups. Group I served as control and received a normal mouse diet. Group II received ginger extract orally, Group III received normal diet for eight weeks, followed by ISO administration subcutaneously to induce myocardial infarction, Group IV received ginger extracts, followed by ISO. Results and Conclusions: The results of this study illustrated ginger's protective role against ISO-induced acute myocardial infarction. This role is mainly due to ginger's antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We assume that sufficient intake of ginger by individuals who are regularly exposed to ISO would be beneficial in overcoming the cardiotoxicity of ISO. The effects of ginger may take place through inhibition of NOS enzymes, which needs further immunohistochemical and biochemical studies to reveal the underlying different mechanisms of the effects of ginger at the molecular and structural levels.
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Qualitative and quantitative study of the changes in the ultrastructure of mammalian adrenal cortex caused by the venezuelan tigra mariposa (Bothrops venezuelensis) snake venom p. 104
Héctor J Finol, Estefanie Garcia-Lunardi, Roschman González, Maria E Girón, Nestor L Uzcátegui, Alexis Rodriguez-Acosta
The damage of the adrenal gland by snake venoms needs to be clarified. Lethality (LD50) of Bothrops venezuelensis (Bv) venom was established by intraperitoneally mice injections. Preparation of specimens for transmission electron microscopy samples from cortex adrenal gland biopsies at 3, 6, and 24 h was processed. The quantitative description by the principal component analysis (PCA) of the adrenal gland was as follows: thickening of the capillary endothelium, area of the capillary lumen, cell nucleus area, enlargement of the perinuclear space, number of mitochondria, area of the mitochondria, number of mitochondrial cristae, number of cristae per mitochondrial unit, and tubular diameter of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). Sections of the adrenal cortex, after 3 h postinjection with Bv venom showed in the cortical cells: mitochondria with tubular cristae and slightly swollen SER cisternae, nucleus with variable heterochromatin content, irregular edges, and swollen nuclear envelope. After 6 h, cells with swollen nucleus envelope, electron dense lipids and mitochondria with loss of their cristae were observed. Myelin figures, close to the microvilli of the cortical cell, multivesicular bodies, swollen profiles of the SER, and electron dense lipid drops were noticed. After 24 h, thickening of the endothelial wall, fenestrae and projections into the capillary lumen, loss of the mitochondrial cristae, destruction of the capillary and the plasma membrane of the cortical cell, multivesicular body, SER loss, and an enlargement of the perinuclear space were detected. In the quantitative PCA, there were significant changes after the venom treatments.
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Effect of depression on diabetes self-care in type 2 diabetes patients at a Saudi teaching hospital: A cross-sectional study p. 115
Ranya Alawy Ghamri, Maryam Abdulhamid Jabali
Aim: This study aimed to assess the relationship between depression and diabetes, especially with regard to diabetes self-care, treatment compliance, and preventive care. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of adult diabetes patients at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to assess depression. Results: A total of 346 patients were included: 266 (77%) women and 80 (23%) men. While 20/3465 (59%) patients were on oral hypoglycemic drugs (OHA), 71/346 (20%) were on OHA + insulin and 70/346 (20%) were on insulin alone (P < 0.001). On binary logistic regression analysis, Saudi ethnicity, female sex, and age 18–29 years were more likely to be associated with depression (P < 0.001). Patients receiving treatment with OHA alone, eating a healthy diet at least once a week, consuming five servings of fruits/vegetables at least once a week, complying with antidiabetic and antihypertensive treatment, and receiving retinal examination in the previous year were less likely to have depression. Conclusion: Depression in diabetes is more likely in patients of young age who do take care to eat a healthy diet or comply with advice regarding drug therapy, exercise, and follow-up examinations.
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Podocytes intracytoplasmic dense inclusions: Are they associated with subepithelial dense deposits? An ultrastructural study p. 121
Sawsan Mohammad Jalalah
Introduction: Podocytes play a crucial role in health and disease. They participate in clearing the filtration barrier by removing accumulated proteins. It is proposed that podocytes have the ability to remove immune complexes and internalize them in the cytoplasm. Aims: The purpose of this study is to review certain immune complex glomerulonephritis (GN) types and illustrate ultrastructural details of podocytes intracytoplasmic dense inclusions (ICDIs) if present. Materials and Methods: A retrospective ultrastructural study of podocytes was conducted to detect cytoplasmic inclusions. The study cases (n = 148) include GN types with subepithelial dense deposits such as membranous GN, postinfectious GN (PIGN), and lupus nephritis. Results: Podocytes ICDIs are detected ultrastructurally in 48 of 148 cases, mostly with PIGN; their morphology resembles the subepithelial dense deposits of the corresponding case. Conclusions: Podocytes ICDIs represent internalized immune complexes from the adjacent subepithelial dense deposits, suggesting a clearance method of the glomerular basement membrane by podocytes.
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The possible protective effect of apple cider vinegar on mercuric chloride-induced changes on rat hepatocytes: immunohistochemical and ultrastructure study p. 126
Samah Kandeel, Heba H Elkaliny
Introduction: Mercuric chloride is a toxic form of mercury capable for induction of oxidative liver damage. Apple cider vinegar (ACV) is a powerful antioxidant agent being used in salad dressings. Our study aimed to assess the beneficial effect of ACV against mercuric chloride-induced hepatic cell damage through an ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study. Materials and Methods: Forty Wistar rats used divided into four groups (10 rats each); control; Group A (ACV): Rats received 2 ml/kg ACV; Group B (HgCl2): Rats received 1 mg/kg HgCl2, and Group C (ACV + HgCl2): Rats received 2 ml/kg ACV 30 min before giving 1 mg/kg HgCl2. Doses given orally by intragastric tube for 30 days. Results: Toluidine blue results of HgCl2group revealed hepatocytes with irregular boundaries, eccentric deeply stained nuclei, and large cytoplasmic vacuoles. Electron microscopic results showed dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum, and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, cytoplasmic vacuolations, areas of cytoplasmic rarefaction, degenerated mitochondria, nuclear membrane irregularities, and dilated bile canaliculi with lost microvilli. Moreover, there was significantly increased expression of HSP60 and number of hepatocytes with proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive nuclei. ACV + HgCl2group showed improvement of the previous changes. Conclusion: ACV could be promising for attenuation of liver cell damages induced by several toxins through its powerful antioxidant properties.
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Mucopolysaccharide keratin dystrophy: Update on pathogenesis and microscopic features p. 132
Arpan K Shah
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