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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
April-June 2020
Volume 8 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 37-80

Online since Tuesday, May 12, 2020

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Functional role of the rodlet cell and macrophage in neural protection of the olfactory neuroepithelium in a teleostean: Gobiid (Pseudapocryptes lanceolatus [Bloch and Schneider, 1801]): An ultrastructural study p. 37
Swaraj Kumar Sarkar, Shreya Jana, Subrata Kumar De
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_13_19  
Background: Neural protection of the olfactory epithelium against pathogenic invasion is still hardly addressed in fish chemosensory research. Aims and Objectives: The ultrastructural detail on the rodlet cell and macrophage has been studied within the olfactory neuroepithelium of Pseudapocryptes lanceolatus to correlate their role in the neural protection of the chemosensory system. Materials and Methods: The cellular structures were examined under light microscope (LM: Primo Star; Carl Zeiss Microscopy, GmbH, Germany) and transmission electron microscope (Morgagni 268D). Results: Three distinct stages of the rodlet cell (viz., immature, mature, and degenerative) and macrophages have been characterized at the various depths of the olfactory neuroepithelium in P. lanceolatus. The cytoarchitecture of degenerative rodlet cell indicates holocrine mode of secretion against pathogenic invasion into the nasal cavity. Macrophages possess prominent pseudopodia, extending toward invading pathogens. The interaction between macrophage and invading pathogens implicates the role of macrophage as a scavenger to eliminate the pathogens by phagocytosis from the neuroepithelial system. Conclusion: This study denotes a significant difference in the mode of action of rodlet cell and macrophages, but they are commonly involved in cell-mediated nonspecific immune response against the invading pathogens.
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Evaluation of the possible protective effect of alpha lipoic acid on testicular toxicity induced by polychlorinated biphenyl in adult albino rats: A histological study p. 42
Reda Hassan Elbakary, Sadika Mohamed Tawfik, Rabab Mohamed Amer
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_34_19  
Introduction: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is considered one of the environmental pollutants. It is used as hydraulic coils in vacuum pumps, pesticides transformers, heat-exchange systems, capacitors and as additives in adhesive inks, paints, plastics, copying paper and sealants. Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is an antioxidant substance normally present in mitochondria as a coenzyme. Aim of the Work: To evaluate the protective effect of ALA on PCB induced testicular toxicity. Materials and Methods: Twenty five adult male albino rats were used in this study. They were divided into four groups, a control group included 10 rats, group II rats received alpha lipoic acid 25mg/Kg /day orally for 30 days, group III rats received PCB 5mg /Kg/day orally for 30 days and group IV rats received both PCB and alpha lipoic acid at the same previous dose for 30 days. At the appropriate time, the specimens were taken and prepared for light and electron microscope study. Results: LM examination revealed structural alterations in group III in the form of wide spaces between seminiferous tubules that contain homogeneous acidophilic substance, partial or complete detachment of the tubules from the basement membrane and total distorted irregular shaped tubules. Also dilated congested blood vessels were seen. EM examination of this group revealed Sertoli cells with cytoplasmic vacuolation and dilated rER. The basement membrane appeared as thick and irregular line under Sertoli and spermatogenic cells and it was interrupted in some points. Primary spermatocyte appeared shrunken while others revealed vacuoles in the cytoplasm and perinuclear dilatation. Leydig cells showed irregular vacuoles and swollen destroyed mitochondria. Amelioration of the previous histological changes could be detected in group IV. Conclusion: It could be concluded that alpha-lipoic acid has a protective effect against PCB induced testicular toxicity.
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Development of a low-cost smartphone-connected digital microscope p. 51
Himel Mondal, Shaikat Mondal, Koushik Saha, Bichitrananda Roul
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_35_19  
Introduction: Modern light microscopes are available with built-in illuminator and facility of photomicrography. This enables the microscopy to be ready for telemedicine. However, resource-limited settings still find difficulty in procuring those microscopes. Aim: The aim of this study was to upgrade a light microscope to a smartphone-connected digital microscope with minimal cost to make it ready for telemedicine. Materials and Methods: A commercially available (price: ₹389) Universal Serial Bus (USB) web camera was set on the eyepiece and fixed with the help of an aluminum sheet. Light emitting diodes (LEDs), covered with an optical diffuser, were set below the condenser. The camera was connected to an Android smartphone with an application for capturing image and video. Sixteen faculty members provided their opinion about the new device. Results: The smartphone-connected microscope was successfully used to focus and capture image and video of various slides. The images and videos were stored in the smartphone and shared via E-mail and other channels (e.g., WhatsApp and Telegram). This camera was also successfully connected to a laptop for projecting the real-time microscopic field on a screen. According to faculty members, focusing an object and capturing the image are the best features of the device; however, development of the device received lowest score. Conclusion: A light microscope was upgraded to telemedicine ready microscope with nominal cost and moderate effort. It can also be used in medical teachings as it can project real-time images of a slide under the microscope. As it is equipped with LEDs, powered by the same smartphone, it can be operated without daylight or during a power outage.
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Efficacy of sweet pumpkin in relieving contact dermatitis in chronically stressed rats p. 55
Etedal Abbas Huwait
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_37_19  
Background: Contact dermatitis (CD) is considered among the common inflammatory skin diseases worldwide. Cucurbita moschata Duchesne has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antidepressant activity beside many other beneficial effects. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of pumpkin fruit extract in treating CD in mice exposed to chronic stress and to explore the mechanism through which pumpkin can relief these changes. Materials and Methods: Thirty male albino rats were divided into three groups (n = 10); the control and two experimental groups that were exposure to chronic unpredictable mild stress for 4 weeks then painting with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) for 3 consecutive days/week for 2 weeks to induce CD. Biochemical assessment of corticosterone level and antioxidants activity was performed. Skin of affected areas was excised, processed for histopathological examination. Results: DNFB-induced CD presented with dryness, hardness, and scaling. There was a significant reduction (P < 0.001) in the levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity in the skin of rats had CD. Histopathologically, the shin showed hyperplastic-thickened epidermis, focal elongation of the rete ridges, inflammatory cells infiltration in the superficial dermis, and increased collagen fibers. Local administration of pumpkin extract significantly increased the antioxidants activity in the skin and alleviated the CD-associated changes. Conclusions: This study showed that the pumpkin fruit extract could have a potential in treating CD in stressed conditions mainly via its enhancement of skin antioxidant activity.
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Differential expression of heat shock protein 27 in oral epithelial dysplasias and squamous cell carcinoma p. 62
Roja Lakshmi Karri, R Venkata Subramanyam, Aparna Venigella, Suresh Babburi, Soujanya Pinisetti, Amrutha Rudraraju
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_48_19  
Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most devastating neoplasm with dramatic increase in morbidity and mortality. The detection and prognostic evaluation of precancerous lesions could aid in early control of cancer. Heat shock protein (HSP) 27 has found to be a biomarker and therapeutic target in different types of cancer. Aim: This study aims to investigate the role of HSP 27 as prognostic molecular indicator of malignant transformation in oral epithelial dysplasias. Materials and Methods: Thirty samples of epithelial dysplasia (10 mild dysplasia, 10 moderate dysplasia, and 10 severe dysplasia/carcinomain situ cases), 10 samples each of well-differentiated OSCC and normal oral mucosa were routinely processed, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and analyzed for HSP27 expression by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was done by one way-ANOVA and Mann–Whitney test to assess the differences between two individual groups. Results: Normal mucosa showed intense, but nonuniform, expression of HSP27. An initial decline was noted in dysplasias. A significant correlation of HSP27 expression was observed with the severity of dysplasia and well-differentiated OSCC (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Low HSP 27 expression can be considered as early molecular indicator of initial dysplastic change in normal mucosa. An overexpression of HSP 27 in clinically and histologically confirmed dysplasia could indicate likely transformation to well-differentiated OSCC and could be of prognostic value. However, further studies with a larger sample size are required to confirm the role of HSP 27 as predictive indicator.
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The possible protective role of zingerone on ethanol induced entrotoxicity of jejunum in adult albino rats: Light and scanning electron microscopic study p. 69
Rabab M Amer
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_55_19  
Introduction: Zingerone is a nontoxic important extract of dry ginger plant. It is reported that zingerone has an anticancer property, strong anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Aim of the Work: is to evaluate the possible protective effects of zingerone on ethanol-induced lesions on the jejunum of adult male albino rats. Materials and Methods: twenty four adult male albino rats were used, divided into 3 groups; A control group (I); consisted of 8 rats, ethanol group (II); contained 8 rats and each rat given 50% v/v alcohol at a dose of 4 g/kg.bw orally for 15 days. Ethanol zingerone group (III); consisted of 8 rats, each received zingerone at a dose of 50 mg/kg and alcohol at the same previous dose daily and orally for 15 days. At the appropriate time, the specimens were taken and prepared for light and electron microscope study. Results: Histological examination of jejunum sections of ethanol group (II) showed massive jejunal villi ulcerations with shedding of their surface epithelium, loss of the villous architecture and loss of the microvilli covering some enterocytes. Examination of ethanol zingerone group (III) showed evidence of improvement in the form of nearly normal architecture of the jejunal villi with few areas of ulcerations on the top of some villi and increased cells with mitotic activity.Conclusion: Accordingly, we can conclude that zingerone administration can remarkably ameliorate ethanol-induced enterotoxiciy and jejunal ulcerations in rats by its anti-inflammatory properties and by suppressing oxidative stress.
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CASE REPORT Top

A case report of thyroid plasmacytoma and literature update p. 75
Fahd Refai, Wafaey Gomaa, Layla Abdullah
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_36_19  
Plasmacytomas of the thyroid gland are rare, whether or not they arise as solitary (primary) lesions or secondary to systemic multiple myeloma. Here, we present the case of a 71-year-old female presenting with goiter and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, in whom the subsequent histopathological diagnosis of plasmacytoma was a surprise. In presenting this case, we summarize the last 25 years of literature on thyroid plasmacytoma and review the salient clinicopathological characteristics, differential diagnoses, management, and outcomes of this rare condition.
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LETTER TO THE EDITOR Top

Oral mucosal peeling caused by sodium lauryl sulfate in a 20-year-old female p. 80
Thorakkal Shamim, P Abdul Hisham
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_43_19  
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