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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-March 2019
Volume 7 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-52

Online since Wednesday, March 13, 2019

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Potential toxic effect of bisphenol A on the cardiac muscle of adult rat and the possible protective effect of Omega-3: A histological and immunohistochemical study p. 1
Noha Gamal Bahey, Hekmat Osman Abd Elaziz, Kamal Kamal Elsayed Gadalla
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_53_18  
Bisphenol A (BPA) is intensely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Recently, BPA has been receiving increased attention due to its link to various health problems that develop after direct or indirect human exposure. Previous studies have shown the harmful effect of high doses of BPA; however, the effect of small doses of BPA on disease development is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a low dose of BPA on the rat myocardium and to explore the outcome of coadministration of Omega-3 fatty acid (FA). Thirty adult male rats were divided equally into control group, BPA-treated group (1.2 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally for 3 weeks), and BPA and Omega-3-treated group (received BPA as before plus Omega-3 at a daily dose of 300 mg/kg/day orally) for 3 weeks. Exposure to BPA resulted in structural anomalies in the rat myocardium in the form of disarrangement of myofibers, hypertrophy of myocytes, myocardial fibrosis, and dilatation of intramyocardial arterioles. On the other hand, mast cell density and media-to-lumen area ratio were not significantly altered. Interestingly, concomitant administration of Omega-3 FAs with BPA significantly reduced BPA-induced changes and provided a protective effect to the myocardium. In conclusion, exposure to a low dose of BPA could potentially lead to pathological alterations in the myocardium, which could be prevented by administration of Omega-3 FA.
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Light and scanning electron microscopic examination of the chicken oviduct during the embryonic and posthatching stages p. 9
Mohamed A.M. Alsafy, Samir A.A. El-Gendy, Ashraf A Karkoura, Doha Naguib
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_12_18  
The present study aimed to study the sequence of developing the oviduct of the Alexandria chicken during the embryonic and posthatching period by using the light and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination. The Mullerian duct began to appear as left and right urogenital ridges composed of stratified cuboidal epithelium at the ventrolateral aspect of the mesonephros at the 5-day-old embryo. At the 6-day-old embryo, the left urogenital ridge canalized and the tubal wall surrounded a circular lumen composed of three cellular components; inner simple columnar epithelium, multilayers of mesenchymal cells, and outer stratified cuboidal epithelium. At the 8-day-old embryo, the inner tubal layer became composed of simple-to-pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium, the density of the mesenchymal cells increased, and the outer layer became simple squamous epithelium at the medial aspect of the duct and stratified epithelium at the lateral aspect of the duct. The left oviduct of the 1-day-old chick resembled the oviduct of 8-day-old embryo except the SEM observations of the tunica mucosa of the 1-day-old chick which showed extensive mucosal folds with many straight cilia. At the 1-week-old chick, the left oviduct showed a folded lumen surrounded by simple columnar ciliated epithelial layer followed by a layer of mesenchymal cells, many layers of smooth muscles surrounded the mesenchymal cells layer and outer simple squamous epithelium layer. At the 1-month-old chick, the left oviduct wall was composed of five layers surrounded by a star-shaped lumen.
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Ultrastructural studies of acrosomal formation in the testis of male greater cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus) p. 14
AO Adebayo, AK Akinloye, AO Ihunwo, VO Taiwo, BO Oke
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_28_18  
Purpose: In furthering the understanding of the process of spermatogenesis in the greater cane rat, this study describes the ultrastructural spermiogenic transformation and acrosomal formation in the testes of this hystricomorphic rodent that is currently undergoing domestication in parts of West Africa. Materials and Methods: Testicular samples were obtained from ten sexually mature cane rats that were perfused-fixed using Karnovsky's fixative (phosphate buffered 2% paraformaldehyde – 2.5% glutaraldehyde fixative at pH 7.4). The samples were processed for ultrastructural analysis and examined under the transmission electron microscope. Results: The testes of the cane rat showed uniqueness in its cellular associations and the ultrastructure of the spermatogenic cells especially in the formation of the acrosome. The spermatid differentiation and acrosomal formation occurred in 12 steps with the first three steps being the Golgi phase and the next three steps making up the cap phase. While the three steps that follow constitute the acrosomal phase, the last 3 steps make up the maturation phase. At the cap and acrosomal phases, the entire acrosomal system comprising the vesicle and granule covers the head of the spermatids with no clear indentation of the nuclear surface by the formed acrosome. Furthermore, elongated spermatids at the maturation phase contained abundance of nuclear vacuoles. Conclusion: This work has not only provided information that will further the understanding of spermatogenesis but also aid the understanding of acrosomal reaction in the reproduction of the greater cane rat.
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Immunohistochemical expression of E- and N-Cadherin in nodular prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma p. 19
Rania Abdallah Abdallah, Asmaa Gaber Abdou, Moshira Abdelwahed, Hend Ali
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_46_18  
Background: Different theories have been postulated to explain the development of nodular prostatic hyperplasia (NPH). Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a physiologic process in which the epithelial cells lose their polarity and cell-cell adhesion and acquire a mesenchymal phenotype. Aim: The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential role of E- and N-cadherin in the induction of EMT in NPH and prostatic carcinoma. Methods: This study was carried out on 55 cases of NPH and 20 cases prostatic carcinoma for evaluation of immunohistochemical expression of E and N cadherins. Results: Most NPH (54/55 cases, 98.2%) and all cases of prostatic carcinoma showed positive N-cadherin expression in prostatic glands and stroma. High percentage of N-cadherin expression by stromal cells was significantly in favor of prostatic carcinoma compared to NPH. High percentage of N-cadherin expression by epithelial cells of carcinoma group was significantly associated with young age while its high expression by stromal cells was significantly associated with multicentricity. About 96.4% of NPH and 75% of prostatic carcinoma showed positive E-cadherin expression with a significant difference. No significant association between E-cadherin and N-cadherins in both NPH and prostatic carcinoma was identified. Conclusions: The prominent expression of N-cadherin in large numbers of NPH and prostate carcinoma cases in the epithelial and stromal components could point to the occurrence of EMT in those diseases. It also opens a new gate for treatment of those patients by targeting N-cadherin molecule. The absence of inverse association between E-cadherin and N-cadherins in NPH and prostatic carcinoma may indicate that cadherin switch is not an essential step for the development of EMT.
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Cytotoxic effects of extract of Acmella oleracea in the ovaries and midgut of Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae) female ticks p. 28
Patrícia Rosa de Oliveira, Luis Adriano Anholeto, Rodney Alexandre Ferreira Rodrigues, André Arnosti, Gervásio Henrique Bechara, Karina Neoob de Carvalho Castro, Maria Izabel Camargo-Mathias
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_16_18  
The present study investigated the effects of different concentrations of Acmella oleracea extract on the germinative cells and digestive processes of semi-engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus females. For this experiment, 150 ticks were divided into five groups (30 individuals each). The animals were immersed for 5 min in different concentrations of the extract, distilled water, or ethanol 50%/DMSO 1%, dried, and kept in biological oxygen demand incubator for 7 days. The alterations were associated with the size of germinative cells and yolk granules; presence, size, and location of vacuoles in the cytoplasm of germinative cells; nuclear modifications in the germinative cells; damages to the nucleus and cytoplasm of the midgut generative cells; size of digestive cells; number of captured blood elements; accumulated digestive residues and digestive vacuoles in the digestive cells cytoplasm; and the number and distribution of proteins and polysaccharides in all the cells of both organs. The concentrations used in this study prevented an efficient and complete blood digestion by the midgut epithelial cells of the treated animals, resulting in the absence of the necessary nutrients to maintain the physiological events in the ectoparasites. In advanced stages, This can lead the ectoparasite to death. The germinative cells were highly impaired and probably not able to advance developmental stages (I–V) or complete vitellogenesis to be released during ovulation, which would prevent the females from originating a new individual. Thus, it can be concluded that the effects of A. oleracea are similar to those caused by chemical products widely recognized as effective to control ticks.
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Renal oxidative stress and inflammatory response in perinatal Cyclosporine-A exposed rat progeny and its relation to gender p. 44
Hany M El-Bassossy, Mohammed A Hassanien, Abdulhadi Bima, Fatma M Ghoneim, Ayman Zaky Elsamanoudy
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_52_18  
Background and Aim of the Work: The current study postulated that cyclosporine A (CSA) could induce gender-specific renal damage. Hence, the current study aims to investigate the nephrotoxic effect of perinatal exposure of male and female rat progeny to CSA. Moreover, it aims to evaluate the oxidative stress and inflammation as a possible pathophysiologic mechanism. Materials and Methods: Female rats were randomly allocated to two groups of four and assigned to undergo either CSA (15 mg/kg/day; the 6th day after conception and continuing until the progeny were weaned) or vehicle treatment as control groups. At the age of 6 weeks, the progeny were divided into the following four groups: male progeny of control-group mothers (M-vehicle, 7); male progeny of CSA-treated mothers (M-CSA, 9); female progeny of control-group mothers (F-vehicle, 7); and female progeny of CSA-treated mothers (F-CSA, 6). Serum adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and creatinine, creatinine clearance, and urinary 8-isoprostane were measured. Histopathological examination by hematoxylin and eosin stain of Kidney was carried out. Results: Proteinuria and decreased creatinine clearance are significant in M-CSA than M-vehicle and F-CSA. 8-isoprostane is lower in F-CSA than F-vehicle. Increased TNF-α and decreased adiponectin levels in M-CSA than M-vehicle were observed. No significant differences were found in female rat groups. Conclusion: From the current study, it could be concluded that CSA could induce renal inflammation as well as oxidative stress that may explain the impaired renal function. The sex difference was a prominent finding in their vulnerability to CSA effects.
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CASE REPORT Top

Orbital Rosai–Dorfman disease: A case report and literature review p. 50
Basim Al-Maghrabi, Tarek Elnaggar, Osama Alamri, Jaudah Al-Maghrabi
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_45_18  
A 53-year-old male presented with dropping of the right eyelid associated with decreased visual acuity for 4 months. He also complained of vertical diplopia especially when looking down. Ophthalmological examination revealed right blepharospasm associated with right hypertropia. There was palpable mass at the inferomedial aspect of the right eye. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed abnormal signal intensity in the right orbit inferior aspect occupying the orbital floor and measured 2.7 cm × 2.5 cm × 1.2 cm and showed enhancement on the postcontrast study. The patient underwent complete excision of the tumor. Histological examination of the mass revealed histiocytic proliferation with emperipolesis, with positive S100, positive CD68, and negative CD1a staining. These histological and immunohistochemical features are consistent with extranodal Rosai–Dorfman disease. There was no complication or recurrence after the complete excision.
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