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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
October-December 2018
Volume 6 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 171-216

Online since Monday, October 22, 2018

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REVIEW ARTICLES  

Cannabinoids for treating cardiovascular disorders: Putting together a complex puzzle Highly accessed article p. 171
Basma Ghazi Eid
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_42_18  
Cannabinoids have been increasingly gaining attention for their therapeutic potential in treating various cardiovascular disorders. These disorders include myocardial infarction, hypertension, atherosclerosis, arrhythmias, and metabolic disorders. The aim of this review is to cover the main actions of cannabinoids on the cardiovascular system by examining the most recent advances in this field and major literature reviews. It is well recognized that the actions of cannabinoids are mediated by either cannabinoid 1 or cannabinoid 2 receptors (CB2Rs). Endocannabinoids produce a triphasic response on blood pressure, while synthetic cannabinoids show a tissue-specific and species-specific response. Blocking cannabinoid 1 receptors have been shown to be effective against cardiometabolic disorders, although this should be done peripherally. Blocking CB2Rs may be a useful way to treat atherosclerosis by affecting immune cells. The activation of CB2Rs was reported to be useful in animal studies of myocardial infarction and cardiac arrhythmia. Although cannabinoids show promising effects in animal models, this does not always translate into human studies, and therefore, extensive clinical studies are needed to truly establish their utility in treating cardiovascular disease.
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First insights into the ultrastructure of myosin and actin bands using transmission electron microscopy in Gyrodactylus (Monogenea) p. 177
Mayra I Grano-Maldonado, Carolina Bruno de Sousa, María A Rodríguez-Santiago
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_29_18  
This study aims to describe the ultrastructure of coiled musculature fibers component of Gyrodactylus gasterostei and its role in this parasite transmission. The present work employs transmission electron microscopy to analyze G. gasterostei musculature, revealing the presence of myosin and actin bands in the underlying epithelium, typical arrangement of the skeletal muscle. This study unravels for the first time the existence of a coil muscle component in which it seems to be responsible for the remarkable flexibility of the musculature of Gyrodactylus and the efficiency of its transmission method to reach a nearby fish host. The elasticity of the musculature described in this study may be comparable with the other specialized elastic musculature within the animal kingdom (i.e., lizards tongue). The clarification of the basic biology of these monogenean parasites and its musculature biochemical systems hold the promise of possible novel muscle targets for a new generation of antiparasitic drugs.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Preparation of sliver and selenium nanoparticles and its characterization by dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy p. 182
Poonam Verma, Sanjiv Kumar Maheshwari
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_3_18  
Aim: In our study, two different methods were used to determine the size and size distribution of the sliver and selenium nanoparticles via dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Background: Nanotechnology dealing with metal and metalloid nanoparticles has been usually applied in nearly each field of science, engineering, and technology including biology and medicine etc due to presence of size and shape dependent unusual physical and chemical properties. In the most recent decade, numerous groups including appreciably developed metal and metalloid nanoparticles based theranostic approaches for the treatment of almost human diseases. Amongst many nanoparticles, recently silver and selenium nanoparticles have been broadly used in the antimicrobial coatings, textiles, paints, keyboards, engineering, food industry, electronics, cosmetics, bio-sensing, wound dressings, and even in biomedical devices. Methods: In our study, silver nanoparticles were prepared by using the chemical reduction method. Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) were synthesized by the chemical reduction of sodium selenite by glutathione (reduced form) and stabilized by bovine serum albumin (BSA). Characterization of silver and selenium nanoparticles samples were analyzed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Conclusions: Due to characterization by DLS technique, nanoparticles size was found the range of 79.22 nm and 178 nm for Sliver and Selenium Nanoparticles respectively. Sliver nanoparticles shown morphological average size and shape with SEM reveals spherical shape particles with the size of 80.32 nm whereas Selenium nanoparticles shown rod shape particles with the size of 74.29 nm.
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Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals in Chittagong, Bangladesh: A threat of nosocomial infection p. 188
Tarequl Islam, Khadizatul Kubra, Mohammed Mehadi Hassan Chowdhury
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_33_18  
Background: As a life threatening infectious disease, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection has been turned into a global health concern recently. In a developing country like Bangladesh, the situation is vulnerable because of inadequate and inappropriate practices of control measures to prevent the spread of nosocomial infection. Materials and Methods: In this study, 100 clinical, nonclinical, and environmental samples were collected from different hospitals in Bangladesh and examined for the detection of methicillin resistant and multidrug resistant S. aureus by cultural methods. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of isolates was also evaluated by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: Out of the total 100 samples, 66 isolates of S. aureus were determined. Among them, 53 isolates (80.30%) revealed a positive result for oxacillin test, but avoiding any false result, 53 oxacillin positive isolates were again examined by cefoxitin, whereas 43 isolates (65.15%) were resistant to cefoxitin and consequently confirmed as MRSA and rest of the 23 isolates (34.85%) were fixed as methicillin sensitive S. aureus. In antibiotic sensitivity test, S. aureus showed the highest (83%) resistance to gentamycin, oxacillin and cefotaxime than other antibiotics. Finally, the risk practices were assessed which are potential factors for spreading infections. Conclusion: Since, MRSA as well as other antibiotic resistant S. aureus are potent threat to human, therefore, we should consider it as a great concern to minimize or prevent the prevalence and adverse effects of MRSA.
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Ultrastructural alterations of liver tissue cells in methotrexate-treated Balb/c Mice p. 192
Ebru Gokalp Ozkorkmaz, Nursel Gul, Aydin Ozluk, Yusuf Ozay
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_31_18  
Aim: The current study investigated the efficacy of methotrexate (MTX) on liver tissue cells of Balb/c mice at the ultrastructural level using transmission electron microscopy. Background: This agent is well known and used as a chemotherapeutic agent for a long time and not selective for cancer cells so, healthy cells beside cancer cells are also affected by MTX. Materials and Methods: Experimental animals were divided into two groups; the first group was kept without treatment and served as the control, the second group was treated with 115 mg/kg MTX i.p. once weekly for 4 weeks and sacrificed under anesthesia after the 4th week. The liver tissues were osmium fixed and embedded in araldite, sectioned and observed under transmission electron microscope. Results: Normal cell ultrastructure was determined in the control group whereas the liver cells of the MTX-treated group revealed ultrastructural alterations, such as the increase in lipid droplets, discontinuity of rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae and vacuole formation. In addition, the loss of cytoplasmic material in hepatocytes was also evident. Condensation of nuclear chromatin and fusion of nucleic membranes were observed in the liver cells of the treated group. Conclusions: Results of the study indicated that MTX, used for different types of medical treatment, disturbed liver cell ultrastructure.
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Histological study on the protective effect of endogenous stem cell mobilization in busulfan-induced testicular injury in albino rats p. 197
Gihan Ibrahim Aboul Fotouh, Menna Mohamed Abdel-Dayem, Dalia Ibrahim Ismail, Hala Hassan Mohamed
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_35_18  
Background: Testicular damage is one of the most hazardous effects of chemotherapy as it is frequently associated with oligozoospermia and azoospermia. Aim of the Work: This study aimed at evaluating the protective effect of hematopoietic stem cell mobilization by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in a rat model of busulfan-induced testicular injury. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four adult albino rats were divided into four groups: group I, the control, Group II: rats received two doses of busulfan (each 15 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (IP) with 14 days interval, Group III: rats received busulfan and left untreated, and Group IV received busulfan IP then G-CSF (70 μg/kg/day) subcutaneously for 5 consecutive days. Testicular sections were stained with H and E and immunohistochemically for CD34, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and caspase-3, and semithin sections were stained with toluidine blue. Results: Groups II and III showed loss of the normal histological architecture of the testis and spermatogenic cells, with increased apoptosis confirmed by significantly increased caspase-3 and significantly decreased PCNA immunoexpression. While Group IV revealed improved testicular histology, decreased apoptosis, and increased proliferative capacity of spermatogenic cells. This was confirmed by significantly decreased caspase-3 immunoexpression and increased PCNA immunoreaction. Conclusion: Mobilization of stem cells with G-CSF was found to improve the testicular histology following busulfan chemotherapy in albino rats.
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Ultrastructural study of rat testis following conventional phototherapy during neonatal period p. 205
Hare Krishna, Asha Changil, M Srinivas, Tara Sankar Roy, Tony George Jacob
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_17_18  
Introduction: Phototherapy is the most common treatment for neonatal jaundice. This study sought to determine ultrastructural changes in testis, at different time-points, after 48 hours of conventional phototherapy was given to newborn rats. Methods: Newborn male Wistar rats (n = 36) were divided into two groups as follows – group 1 (G1), control (without phototherapy) and group 2 (G2), exposure to conventional phototherapy for 48 h. Six animals from each group were sacrificed on postnatal days (PND) 70, 100 and 130. The testes were dissected out and processed for Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Results: TEM showed that G2 on PND 70 and 100 showed damaged organelles, including nuclei, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, vacuoles and electron dense bodies in the testes. Seminiferous Tubule on PND130 showed lesser damage. On PND70 ST wall thickness (STWT) of G2 was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than G1 STWT of G2 was significantly lower than G1 on PND100 (P = 0.047) and on PND130 (P < 0.001). Mitochondrial diameter in spermatogonia was significantly higher in G2 on PND70 (P = 0.001), PND100 (P = 0.031) and PND130 (P = 0.028). Primary spermatocytes in G2 also had larger mitochondria on PND70 (P < 0.001), PND100 (P = 0.007) and PND130 (P = 0.008). Further, spermatids had larger mitochondria in G2 on PND70 (P < 0.001), PND100 (P = 0.044) and PND130 (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Phototherapy causes degenerative changes in rat testis on PND70 and 100 that partially recover by PND 130.
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CASE REPORT Top

Primary myeloid sarcoma of the breast: A case report and review of literature p. 212
Wafaey Gomaa, Ayman Ghanim, Eman Emam, Khaled Bayoumi, Ahmad Ghanim
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_15_18  
Myeloid sarcoma (MS) of the breast is uncommon. We report this case of a 29-year-old female presented with a breast lump that was diagnosed as hamartoma by radiology. The lump was removed surgically. Pathological examination revealed a malignant tumor composed of immature cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and single or multiple nucleoli, diffusely infiltrating the mammary parenchyma and sparing a few ducts and lobules. Immunostaining revealed positivity for leukocytic common antigen, myeloperoxidase, and CD68, and focally positive for CD34 and CD117. The final diagnosis was released as primary MS of the breast. The patient was treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Three consecutive bone marrow biopsies were negative for neoplastic infiltration.
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LETTER TO THE EDITOR Top

Re: Presence of multidrug resistant bacteria on mobile phones of healthcare workers accelerates the spread of nosocomial infections and regarded as a threat to public health in Bangladesh p. 215
SM J. Mortazavi
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_39_18  
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