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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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January-March 2018
Volume 6 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-63

Online since Monday, May 7, 2018

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Anti-quorum sensing natural compounds p. 1
Hani Z Asfour
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_10_18  
Increasing extent of pathogenic resistance to drugs has encouraged the seeking for new anti-virulence drugs. Many pharmacological and pharmacognostical researches are performed to identify new drugs or discover new structures for the development of novel therapeutic agents in the antibiotic treatments. Although many phytochemicals show prominent antimicrobial activity, their power lies in their anti-virulence properties. Quorum sensing (QS) is a bacterial intercellular communication mechanism, which depends on bacterial cell population density and controls the pathogenesis of many organisms by regulating gene expression, including virulence determinants. QS has become an attractive target for the development of novel anti-infective agents that do not rely on the use of antibiotics. Anti-QS compounds are known to have the ability to prohibit bacterial pathogenicity. Medicinal plants offer an attractive repertoire of phytochemicals with novel microbial disease-controlling potential, due to the spectrum of secondary metabolites present in extracts, which include phenolics, quinones, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and polyacetylenes. They have recently received considerable attention as a new source of safe and effective QS inhibitory substances. The objective of this review is to give a brief account of the research reports on the plants and natural compounds with anti-QS potential.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Prostatic carcinogenesis: More insights p. 11
Eman M Saied, Hanan Alsaeid Alshenawy
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_11_18  
Background: Prostatic carcinoma ranks as the second most common malignant tumor and the fifth cause of cancer-related deaths in men. Many studies now focus on the different molecules involved in prostatic carcinogenesis. Maspin and prohibitin (PHB) are suggested to play crucial roles in the development and progression of many cancers; however, their roles in prostatic carcinogenesis have not been fully elucidated. Aim: This work was designed to study the immunohistochemical expression of maspin and PHB in prostatic carcinoma in comparison to their expression in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) to give more insights about their roles in prostatic carcinogenesis. Materials and Methods: Archival blocks of 30 cases of prostatic adenocarcinomas and 15 cases of BPH were subjected to histopathological examination and immunohistochemical evaluation of maspin and PHB expression. Results: Maspin showed higher expression in prostatic carcinoma (88.9% of cases) compared to BPH (20% of cases). PHB expression was detected only in prostatic carcinoma (84.4% of cases), while all cases of BPH were negative. The expression of both maspin and PHB showed statistically significant increase with increasing Gleason score (P = 0.0125 and 0.0065 respectively). Conclusions: Overexpression of maspin and PHB in prostatic carcinoma reflects their vital roles in prostatic carcinogenesis. Their upregulation with increasing Gleason score indicates their prognostic significance. Moreover, PHB may differentiate between prostatic carcinoma and BPH being expressed only by malignant cells.
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Ultrastructure of the parotid salivary gland in the greater cane rats (Thryonomys Swinderianus) p. 17
Casmir O Igbokwe
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_6_18  
The parotid glands of adult male African greater cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus) were examined by light microscopy (semi-thin sections) and transmission electron microscopy. Histologically, it consisted of acinar cells with vacuoles which corresponded to large oval electron-dense granules, intercalated, striated ducts, and myoepithelial cells which contacted the cells and intercalated ducts (IDs). The cytoplasmic organizations of acinar cells represented the features of serous secreting cells. Ultrastructurally, the acinar cells contained granules of low and moderately electron densities without substructures in their matrix. Lipid droplets were interspersed with the granules. Several coalesced low electron-dense granules were common in some of the acinar cells. The acinar cells also contained few dilated (vesicular) and abundant parallel arrays of tubular rough endoplasmic reticulum and extensive Golgi complex. IDs were lined by tall cuboidal cells interconnected by tight junctions. Secretory granules were absent in their cytoplasm. Striated ducts were composed of columnar cells with few basal cells, and secretory granules were absent as well. Apical blebbing was observed in these ducts. Myoepithelial cells were limited to the acinar-intercalated ductal system. Nerve terminals were observed among the adjacent acinar cells and the underlying basement lamina. The functional significance of these structures is discussed.
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Histological and ultrastructure study of the testes of acrylamide exposed adult male albino rat and evaluation of the possible protective effect of Vitamin E intake p. 23
Nawal Awad Hasanin, Nazik Mahmoud Sayed, Fatma Mohammed Ghoneim, Sara Ahmed Al-Sherief
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_7_18  
Acrylamide (AA) is a hazardous unavoidable gonadal toxin. Hence, the aim of this study is to clarify its harmful effects on the testis of adult albino rat by light and electron microscope and to evaluate the possible role of Vitamin E (Vit E) in the prevention of such effects. Thirty-five adult male albino rats were enrolled in this study. They were divided into three groups: Group I (control); Group II (AA exposed), and Group III (AA and concomitant Vit E treated group). Animals of Groups II and III were further subdivided into two equal subgroups (each subgroup included five rats): (a) rats were sacrificed after 4 weeks and (b) rats were sacrificed after 6 weeks. The testes of each rat were dissected out, processed, and examined by Hematoxylin and Eosin, Periodic acid–Schiff and Mallory's trichrome stains as well as electron microscopic study. The study revealed that AA induces testicular damage at the histological and ultrastructural level in the form of degeneration and arrested spermatogenesis. Moreover, decreased seminiferous tubules diameters and epithelial height were detected. These changes are maximally improved in Vit E treated group. Hence, we could conclude that AA causes degenerative changes of the testes of albino rats and arrest of spermatogenesis. The AA-induced histological and ultrastructural changes of the testes could be explained by oxidative stress. These effects changes are proportional to the duration of exposure. Moreover, it could be concluded that Vitamin E has a protective role against AA-induced testicular damage by its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects.
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Histopathological and ultrastructural alterations in some organs of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to glyphosate-based herbicide, excel mera 71 p. 35
Palas Samanta, Pragya Kumari, Sandipan Pal, Aloke Kumar Mukherjee, Apurba Ratan Ghosh
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_8_18  
Oreochromis niloticus was exposed to glyphosate-based herbicide Excel Mera 71 for 30 days under field and laboratory conditions to investigate the histopathological and ultrastructural responses in gill, liver, and kidney. Gill displayed degenerative changes in the pillar cells of gill epithelium, curling of secondary lamella, and appearance of globular structure in laboratory condition under light microscopy. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations revealed loss of microridges, disappearance of normal array of microridges, and damage in stratified epithelial cells under both the conditions, while severe vacuolation and necrosis were prominent under transmission electron microscopic (TEM) study in the laboratory condition. In liver, excess fat deposition and acentric nuclei in the laboratory condition were prominent under light microscopic and SEM study. TEM study showed necrosis in mitochondria, cytoplasmic vacuolation, degeneration in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and reduced amount of glycogen droplets, but under field condition, lesions were less. Kidney showed fragmented glomerulus, excessive fat deposition, and hypertrophied nuclei under light microscope, while topological study showed shrinkage of glomerulus and degenerative changes under laboratory condition. TEM study also confirmed necrosis in mitochondria, dilation and fragmentation of ER, and appearance of severe vacuolation in the laboratory study, but no significant alterations were observed in field under SEM and TEM study. Therefore, the present study depicts that Excel Mera 71 caused comparatively less pathological lesions under field than laboratory condition, and finally, these responses could be considered as bioindicators for toxicity study in aquatic ecosystem.
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Histological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical study of experimentally induced fatty liver in adult male albino rat and the possible protective role of pomegranate p. 44
Nadia F Hassan, Gehan M Soliman, Ebtsam F Okasha, Amany M Shalaby
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_5_18  
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a major health problem and is considered the most common worldwide liver disease. Pomegranate has many biological activities and could modify the risk of hypercholesterolemia. The objective of the current research was to study the histological changes of experimentally induced fatty liver and possible protection by pomegranate. For this purpose, 50 adult male albino rats were divided into four groups, control group, pomegranate treated group that were given pomegranate juice for six weeks, fatty liver induced group that were fed on high fat diet for six weeks and protective group that were fed on high fat diet and received pomegranate juice for six weeks. Histological changes were detected in the fatty liver induced group in the form of disturbed hepatic architecture, dilatation and congestion of central veins, blood sinusoids and portal veins. Most of hepatocytes showed variable degrees of cytoplasmic vacuolation, mitochondrial structural changes, dilatation of endoplasmic reticulum in addition to nuclear structural changes like condensed chromatin, irregular shrunken nuclei and vacuolated nuclei. All these changes were associated with inflammatory cellular infiltrations, deposition of collagen fibers around the central vein, blood sinusoids, portal areas and in between the hepatocytes in addition to significant increase in number of hepatic stellate cells that was proved by electron microscope and confirmed by immunohistochemical study. Moreover, these structural changes were much less pronounced in animals treated with pomegranate either with or before receiving high fat diet. These findings suggested that pomegranate has a protective effect against experimentally induced fatty liver.
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Epifluorescence and stereomicroscopy of trichomes associated with resistant and susceptible host plant genotypes of the asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae), Vector of citrus greening disease bacterium p. 56
David G Hall, El-Desouky Ammar, Kim D Bowman, Ed Stover
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_9_18  
Background and Significance: Foliar trichomes (tiny hair-like structures) are part of the plant defense mechanisms that may confer resistance to some herbivore pests. Trifoliate orange, Poncirus trifoliata, is a genotype resistant to infestations by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), vector of the economically important citrus greening (huanglongbing) disease bacterium. We discovered that dense trichomes are associated with young leaves of trifoliate orange plants and hypothesized that these might be responsible for reduced infestation by this psyllid. Materials and Methods: Epifluorescence and stereomicroscopy were used to study the density and structure of trichomes associated with young flush leaves and stems of trifoliate orange and of five other plant genotypes that are highly susceptible to colonization by the psyllid: lemon, grapefruit, sweet orange, curry leaf, and orange jasmine. Results: Simple unicellular trichomes were observed at moderate-to-large densities on young leaves and stems of each genotype except lemon and sweet orange, which had considerably fewer trichomes. Trichomes were generally abundant on young leaves of curry leaf and orange jasmine, two genotypes that are often heavily colonized by the psyllid. Although we did not quantify oviposition rates on these genotypes, we observed that psyllid females deposited eggs on young leaves, buds, and stems regardless of the density of trichomes present, sometimes directly within or close to a dense bed of trichomes. Conclusions: While trichomes were moderately abundant on young leaves of trifoliate orange, our results strongly suggest that these trichomes may play little or no role in reduced colonization by the psyllid on this genotype.
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