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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-September 2019
Volume 7 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 103-145

Online since Friday, August 30, 2019

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Factors involved in relapse of multiple sclerosis p. 103
Fatemah Omar Kamel
Multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic autoimmune disorder, affects the central nervous system (CNS). It affects the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerve, leading to problems with vision, balance, muscle control, and other basic bodily functions. MS relapse (MSR) involves an acute inflammatory demyelinating reaction within the CNS. This review focuses on the main factors involved in MSR based on a detailed literature search. Evidence suggests that MSR is influenced by age, sex, pregnancy, serum levels of Vitamin D, interactions between genetic and environmental factors, and infectious diseases. Many of these factors are modifiable and require the attention of patients and health-care providers if favorable outcomes are to be realized. Identification of MSR risk factors can help in the development of therapies that could be used to manage MS and MSR.
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Study of the association of phosphatase and tensin homolog and p27 expressions in endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma p. 109
Ihab Shafek Atta
Introduction: Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and p27 are commonly mutated gene in endometrial carcinoma (EC) and their association in development of EC has not been fully understood. The Aim of the Study: The aim is to clarify the association of PTEN and p27 in EC and their correlation with the histologic grade. Material and Methods: Paraffin-embedded 20 and 50 specimens representing EH and EC were collected, cut into 4 mm thick and stained with H&E stain for histopathological examination. All EC cases were graded according to the percentage of nonsquamous solid pattern into 3 grades. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses were done using a rabbit polyclonal anti-PTEN antibody and a rabbit monoclonal anti-p27 antibody. Evaluation of reactivity was categorized: 1+ (weak) = less than 10%, 2+ (moderate) = 11 to 50% and 3+ (strong) = more than 50% tumor. t-test, one way ANOVA and chi-square test were used in the statistical analysis. Results: Loss of PTEN was seen in 7/20 (35%) and 29/50 (58%) of EH and EC cases with significance (P =0.01824), opposite to 17/20 (85%) and 25/50 (50%) of p27 (P = 0.00334). Both antibodies showed significance in EH cases only (P= 0.00019). No correlation with the histological grade for both antibodies. Four major categories were formulated; PTEN+/p27+ (n= 2, 14, 10%, 28%), PTEN+/p27- (n = 5, 7; 25% and 14%), PTEN-/p27+ (n= 1, 11; 5%, 22%) PTEN-/p27- (n= 12, 18; 60%, 36%) cases of EH and EC, respectively with no significant difference obtained. Conclusion: Not all cases of PTEN negative EC showing p27 loss and vice versa. Despite many studies reacted with PTEN and p27 expression in EC, none of them is confirmatory to adjust the correlation between them in EC. So, more studies must be done to correlate between the degree of PTEN loss and p27 comprising all subtypes and grading of EC.
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Estimation of volume of stria vascularis and the length of its capillaries in the human cochlea p. 117
Sree Vani Poorna Pillutla, Charanjeet Kaur, Tara Sankar Roy, Tony George Jacob
Background: The stria vascularis (SV) is a vascularized epithelium that secretes endolymph and is located on the lateral wall of the membranous cochlea. The capillaries of SV directly influence the composition of the endolymph and hence the generation of impulses by the hair-cells that are auditory receptors and thus affect hearing. Therefore, the real morphology of the SV would be very important for understanding the hearing system. There are few reliable reports of the morphology of the human SV. Aims and Objectives: In this research, we have estimated the volume of the SV and total length of strial capillaries in the apical, middle and basal turns of the human cochlea by updated stereological techniques. Methods: The point-counting Cavalieri's method and hemispherical volume probes were applied on stained, 40 μm-thick serial sections of five celloidin-embedded, decalcified cochleae. Results: The mean age of persons at the time of death was 51 ± 15.25 years, the mean volume of the SV was 0.56 ± 0.054 mm3 and the mean length of the SV capillaries was 289.08 ± 72.96 mm. We also estimated the same parameters with different stereological parameters, probes and in differently stained sections and checked the relationship and limits of agreement between different methods by paired T-test and Bland-Altman plot. We found agreement in our results. Conclusion: We provide reliable baseline data on the real morphology of the human SV.
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Comparison of hematoxylin and eosin stain with modified gallego's stain for differentiating mineralized components in ossifying fibroma, cemento-ossifying fibroma, and cementifying fibroma p. 124
Snehal Dhouskar, Sandhya Tamgadge, Avinash Tamgadge, Treville Periera, Uma Mudaliar, Aswathy Pillai
Objective: The nature of calcifications in fibro-osseous lesions is difficult to differentiate under hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stain and could be misleading. Special stains could be used. Modified Gallego's stain is a differential stain for hard tissues, which has been discussed recently in the literature. Methods: Retrospective study was done from June to December 2015 to differentiate various types of mineralized tissues in ossifying fibroma (OF), cemento-OF (COF), and cementifying fibroma (CF), using modified Gallego's stain and its correlation with H and E stain. Control group comprised of decalcified section of bone, tooth, and odontoma, stained with modified Gallego's stain. Study group comprised of 30 lesions (10 OF, 10 COF, and 10 CF) stained with both modified Gallego's stain and H&E stain. This study did not have any numerical data; therefore, no appropriate statistical test could be performed. Hence, cross tabulation of the categorical data was used followed by descriptive statistical analyses. Results were presented on continuous measurements using mean ± standard deviation, and results on categorical measurements were presented in number (%). Results: Modified Gallego's staining showed that, out of 10 cases of OF, 9 cases were interpreted as OF; one case of juvenile psammomatoid OF was interpreted as juvenile psammomatoid COF. Out of 10 cases of COF, 4 cases were interpreted as OF. Out of 10 cases of CF, 2 cases were interpreted as COF and 3 cases as OF. Conclusions: Fibro-osseous lesions are difficult to diagnose using H and E staining alone. Modified Gallego's stain could be a best adjunct.
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Immunohistochemical expression of myofibroblasts using alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA) to assess the aggressive potential of various clinical subtypes of ameloblastoma p. 130
Uma Mudaliar, Avinash Tamgadge, Sandhya Tamgadge, Treville Pereira, Snehal Dhouskar, Sonali Rajhans, Gourav Salunke
Objective: Ameloblastoma is a rare odontogenic neoplasm with high recurrence rates if improperly treated. If left untreated (or is treated inadequately), it can cause substantial morbidity, disfigurement, and even death. Hence, there is a need to explore the stromal cells too, which might play an important role in assessing its aggressive behavior and may help to predict the recurrence of different clinical variants of ameloblastoma. Myofibroblasts (MFs) are such cells which have been studied in various lesions. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study involved archival tissues of ameloblastoma. Among a total of 40 cases, 12 cases of SMA (solid multicystic ameloblastoma), 10 cases of unicystic ameloblastoma (UA), 8 cases of desmoplastic ameloblastoma, and 10 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma were selected as control. Immunohistochemical staining with anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin antibody was done. Interpretation of ten examined fields was counted by three observers. Results: Significant difference in the number of MFs in SMA and UA and desmoplastic ameloblastoma and UA (P < 0.05) was found. However, there was no statistically significant difference in MFs of SMA and desmoplastic ameloblastomas (P > 0.05). In addition, there was no statistically significant difference in the staining intensity between the three variants (P > 0.05). Conclusion: A significant correlation was obtained between the number of MF in all the three clinical variants, i.e., SMA, UA, and desmoplastic ameloblastoma (P = 0.02), which is the unique feature of the study.
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In vivo bioluminescence-based monitoring of liver metastases from colorectal cancer: An experimental model p. 136
Paolo Magistri, Cecilia Battistelli, Gabriele Toietta, Raffaele Strippoli, Andrea Sagnotta, Antonello Forgione, Fabrizio Di Benedetto, Stefania Uccini, Paola Vittorioso, Francesco D'Angelo, Paolo Aurello, Giovanni Ramacciato, Giuseppe Nigri
Background: In this study we aimed to develop a new in vivo bioluminescence-based tool to monitor and to quantify colon cancer (CC) liver metastasis development. Methods: HCT 116 cells were transducted with pLenti6/V5-DEST-fLuc for constitutive expression of firefly luciferase. Infection was monitored analyzing endogenous bioluminescence using the IVIS Lumina II In vivo Imaging System and a positive clone constitutively expressing luciferase (HCT 116-fLuc) was isolated. HCT 116-fLuc cells were left untreated or treated with 1 μM GDC-0449, a Hedgehog pharmacological inhibitor. Moreover, 1 x 106 HCT 116-fLuc cells were implanted via intra-splenic injection in nude mice. Bioluminescence was analyzed in these mice every 7 days for 5 weeks. After that, mice were sacrificed and bioluminescence was analyzed on explanted livers. Results: We found that in vitro bioluminescence signal was significantly reduced when HCT 116-fLuc cells were treated with GDC-0449. Regarding in vivo data, bioluminescence sources consistent with hepatic anatomical localization were detected after 21 days from HCT 116-fLuc intrasplenic injection and progressively increased until the sacrifice. The presence of liver metastasis was further confirmed by ex-vivo bioluminescence analysis of explanted livers. Conclusions: Our in vitro results suggest that inhibition of Hedgehog pathway may hamper CC cell proliferation and impel for further studies. Regarding in vivo data, we set-up a strategy for liver metastasis visualization, that may allow follow-up and quantification of the entire metastatic process. This cost-effective technique would reduce experimental variability, as well as the number of sacrificed animals.
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Peeling skin syndrome: A pathologically invisible dermatosis p. 141
Hala M El Hanbuli, Mohamed H Elmahdi, Nehal Kamal
Peeling skin syndrome is a relatively rare clinical case with pathology of apparently normal skin that needs clinical details to reach accurate diagnoses. Hence, this case was used as examples to declare how it is important for both the pathologist and the dermatologist to cooperate to reach an accurate diagnosis.
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Fine-needle aspiration cytology of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma of cervical lymph node: A challenging diagnosis p. 143
Asmaa Gaber Abdou, Nancy Asaad, Hayam Aiad, Asmaa Shams, Abdelnabei Said, Marwa Serag Eldein
Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) is a rare malignant tumor that could arise in both nodal and extranodal sites, with only nine previously reported cases demonstrating cytologic features. In this report, we describe a case of FDCS in a 60-year-old female who presented with neck mass. Fine-needle aspiration cytology and subsequent core biopsy were suggestive of metastatic carcinoma. The cytologic features were epithelioid-to-spindle cell morphology, vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli, intranuclear inclusions, and occasional binucleated and multinucleated forms. However, absence of cytokeratin expression was against the diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma. The definitive diagnosis was reached by the demonstration of CD21 and CD23 expression. The pathologist should be aware of this rare malignant tumor, especially its cytologic features in aspirated material. The differential diagnosis in the above case was metastatic carcinoma, melanoma, and malignant granular cell tumor. The demonstration of expression of one or more dendritic cell marker is the clue for the diagnosis, which could be applied on cytological preparations with sufficient material.
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