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   Table of Contents - Current issue
April-June 2019
Volume 7 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 53-101

Online since Thursday, June 13, 2019

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Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway: A critical regulator in tumor-associated macrophage polarization p. 53
Thikryat Neamatallah
The notion that inflammation is a critical component of cancer has been researched extensively. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are among the inflammatory cells that greatly influence cancer. In the tumor microenvironment (TME), macrophages can either stimulate or inhibit tumorigenesis. TAMs that stimulate tumor cell proliferation (M2-phenotype) enrich the TME with growth factors and immunosuppressive molecules, whereas tumor inhibitory TAMs (M1-phenotype) initiate the immune response to dampen tumor progression. Shifting between phenotypes is controlled by several components of the TME. Targeting macrophages, specifically inhibiting M2 TAMs, has been introduced successfully in cancer immunotherapy. However, signaling mechanisms underlining TAM polarization are largely unknown. This review analyzed studies of the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) as a determinant of macrophage polarization. It is proposed that activation of MAPK, particularly extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38, might favor the differentiation into M2 TAMs. Thus, pharmacological modification of MAPK pathways will potentially offer exciting new targets in cancer immunotherapy.
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Ultrastructure morphological characterization of different passages of rat dental follicle stem cells at In vitro culture Highly accessed article p. 57
Fakhri A Al-Bagdadi, Humberto M Barona, Eduardo Martinez-Ceballos, Shaomian Yao
Introduction: Stem cells play important roles in tissue renewal and repair. Tissue-derived stem cells have been demonstrated for their applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Expansion of primary stem cells isolated from tissues to a large quantity through in vitro culture is needed for application of the stem cells. However, it is known that tissue stem cells commonly reduce or lose their stemness properties during in vitro culture. In this study, we assessed ultrastructural changes of rat dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs) during in vitro culture. It is our attempt to explain the loss of stemness properties in cultured tissue-stem cells at the ultrastructural level. Method: DFSCs was isolated from first molars of Sprague Dawley rat pups and cultured in medium consisting of alpha-MEM plus 20% FBS. Cells were passaged at 1 to 3 ratio at 90% confluence, and collected at passages 3, 6, 7 and 9 for assessment of ultrastructure morphology by transmission electron microscopy. Results: Of the four passages (3, 6, 7, and 9) examined, dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) was abundant in Passage 3 but less so in Passages 6, 7, and 9. The dilated RER contained lipid in Passages 3, 7, and 9. The mono- and polyribosomes in Passages 3 and 6 were located between the mitochondria and the RER. Mono- and polyribosomes were abundant in Passage 7, although mainly monoribosomes were present in Passage 9. Membrane-bound glycogen granules were in vacuoles bulging off the cells in Passage 3. Some glycogen granules were grouped in the periphery of a stem cell in Passage 9. Nuclei shapes were irregular and mainly euchromatic in Passages 6, 7, and 9. The mitochondria were dark and scarce in Passage 9; irregular, small, and dark in Passage 7; and small and rounded in Passage 6, and they were spread in the cytoplasm away from the nucleus in Passage 3. Cell contacts were seen in Passages 6, 7, and 9. The ultrastructure morphology of the examined DFScs was not very different from the morphology criteria of the undifferentiated cells. Large vacuoles in Passage 3 were mainly at the periphery of the cell, with the small vacuoles in the cell center. Small vacuoles were scattered in the cell center of Passage 6 and the larger ones were observed at the cell's periphery. Conclusions: We observed the following ultrastructural changes: decreases of fine cell cytoplasmic processes, dilated cytoplasmic vacuoles, cytoplasmic pinocytotic vesicles, and nuclear heterochromatin with increasing cell passage number. Conversely, mean ratios of lipid globules, nuclear euchromatin, irregular nuclear shape, and cell contact between cells were increased with passage number. The observations may suggest an increase in committed cells among the population after long-term culture of DFSCs.
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The biological and hematological effects of Echinacea purpurea L. Roots extract in the immunocompromised rats with cyclosporine p. 65
Hala A H. Khattab, Seham K Abounasef, Haneen L Bakheet
Background: The immune system is the body's defense against foreign organisms and harmful chemicals. Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an immunosuppressant drug widely used. Echinacea purpurea root (EPR) extract is used as an immunostimulant plant. Aim of the Work: The present study aimed at evaluation of the EPR effects against the CsA immunosuppressive rat model. Material and Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into control, CsA (immunosuppressive models), CsA + EPR (100 mg/kg/day orally), and CsA + EPR (200 mg/kg/day orally). The biological parameters regarding the food consumption were assessed including feed intake (FI), feed efficiency ratio (FER), and body weights (BW). In addition, the splenic specimens were assessed histopathology. The blood was collected for measuring the blood parameters. All the measured parameters were collected and statistically analyzed. The biological results indicated a significant decrease in BW, FI, and FER in rats treated orally with low and high EPR doses as compared to the control group. Results: The results displayed that the CsA induced a significant decrease in red blood cells (RBCs) and white blood cells (WBCs) count. Histopathologically, CsA induced a marked decrease in the cellularity of the white pulp with congested blood sinusoids of the red pulp together with significant depletion of periarteriolar lymphoid sheath. Both the high and low doses of EPR significantly reversed the altered RBCs and WBCs counts. Histopathologically, both the low and high doses of EPR displayed apparently increase in the periarteriolar area together with the persistence of the congestion of the red pulp blood sinusoids compared to CsA group, indicating partial amelioration of the structural changes. Conclusion: In a nutshell, the current findings revealed that EPR extract ameliorated the hematological changes. However, there was a partial correction of the CsA-induced microscopic changes of the rat spleen.
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The awareness of pregnant patient about effect of antibiotics in pregnancy p. 72
Rehab Alsaleh, Shahad Gari, Maram Gari
Background: Medication during pregnancy should be prescribed under caution as some medication has adverse effects on fetus health and they may be teratogenic. Antibiotics are widely used in pregnancy as a result of infections, adding that many pregnant women may administrate antibiotic without doctors' prescription. It is very important to assess the awareness of females about the effect of antibiotics during the pregnancy period. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the awareness of pregnant patient about effect of antibiotics in pregnancy. Subjects and Methods: This study is cross-sectional study which was conducted in 2017 from September to October. Data were collected using interviewing questionnaire which investigated several variables including sociodemographics, clinical examination, clinical history, and clinical measurements. Results: Education and economic levels significantly affected the knowledge about reason for using antibiotic (P = 0.006, 0.002), using of antibiotic against what (P = 0.005, 0.000), education level affected the knowledge about the using of antibiotic without doctors' prescription (P = 0.01), and while economic level influenced knowledge about the effect of antibiotic (P = 0.01). Conclusion: There was good level of knowledge about using of antibiotic during pregnancy among females which was affected by economic and education levels.
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Knowledge of and attitudes toward the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids among the population of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia p. 78
Maha H Ahmed, Najla S Al-Saud, Abdulkader M Omar, Rania M Magadmi, Sabah M Hassan, Fatma M Al-Qudsi
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) among the population of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and their knowledge and attitudes. Methods: This was a community-based, cross-sectional observational study. This study was conducted using a questionnaire that was distributed among the population during the period from February 3, 2018, to February 25, 2018. This questionnaire comprised 31 questions, designed to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward using AASs. Results: A total of 300 participants were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the population was 30.66 ± 9.2 years. Fourteen participants admitted using AASs, with a percentage of 4.7%, among whom 85.7% were male (P = 0.0005). Seventy-eight percent of AAS users believed that AASs do not cause tolerance when taken for a longtime (P = 0.023). However, the majority of both AAS users and nonusers did not agree on taking AASs for a longtime. Our results showed a strong correlation between not taking AASs and not consuming energy drinks (P = 0.0023). Half of our respondents exhibited poor knowledge regarding the side effects of AASs. The level of knowledge did not correlate with the use of AAS, gender, exercising, or consuming energy drinks. Conclusion: The results showed poor knowledge regarding using AASs among the population of Jeddah. Thus, we recommend having a national awareness program in order to prevent the possible side effects of misusing AASs.
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Possible protective role of panax ginseng on cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity in adult male albino rats (Biochemical and Histological Study) p. 84
Abdulaziz Abdulrahman Alrashed, Eman Ali El-Kordy
Background: Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapy antineoplastic drugs. Panax ginseng is a well-known medicinal herb and has a long history of medicinal use as a tonic to promote health. Aim: This work aimed to study the effect of ginseng on the liver damage induced by cisplatin in rats. It included biochemical and histological investigations. Materials and Methods: Twenty adult rats were divided into four equal groups. Group I served as control. Group II received ginseng orally (100 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. Group III animals were injected intraperitoneally with cisplatin in three equal doses (each 3.3 mg/kg) daily for 3 consecutive days. Group IV animals received ginseng together with cisplatin by the same previously mentioned methods and doses. Rats were sacrificed after 4 weeks, and blood samples and liver tissues were collected for biochemical and histological examinations. Results: Cisplatin-induced liver damage manifested biochemically by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. Histologically, hepatocytes appeared with vacuolated cytoplasm and small dark-stained nuclei with dilatation of blood sinusoids as well as marked accumulation of collagen fibers around enlarged portal tracts. Administration of ginseng together with cisplatin improved the hepatic dysfunctions and damage caused by cisplatin. Conclusion: Ginseng has a protective role in the amelioration of cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity.
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Efficacy of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in ameliorating streptozotocin-induced diabetic liver injury in rats: Histological and biochemical studies p. 91
Mona R Alshathly
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) was reported to have an antioxidant, antidiabetic effect. This study was done to investigate its therapeutic effect against functional and structural alteration in liver of diabetic rat (intraperitoneal streptozotocin (STZ) in a dose of 60 mg/kg/bw). Thirty adult male rats (three-months-old and 250 g weight) were sorted into five groups (N=6). G1 used as control, G2 was diabetic rats without any treatment, G3 was diabetic rats given oral ginger in a dose of 500 mg/kg/bw, G4 was diabetic rats treated with metformin (500 mg/kg/bw) while G5 received ginger orally. The experiment lasts for six weeks, animals were anesthetized by ether, body weight was recorded for all animals. Blood was collected for further analysis of lipid profile, liver enzymes and total antioxidant. Liver was dissected, weighted and samples were processed for histopathological study. The results showed significant decrease of glaucous level and liver enzymes in ginger treated rats. Total antioxidant was preserved. Ginger lowered blood glucose, level, regained body weight and liver index to near normal values. Diabetes induced degenerative changes and micro-vesicular lipid deposition in hepatocytes with moderate portal area fibrosis. Ultrastructure study confirmed such changes beside demonstrating increased lipid deposition in fat storing cells. Ginger was found to ameliorate those changes in treated animals. Results were matching metformin effects. In conclusion, Ginger as a natural safe Herbal medication can be used to support liver functions in diabetic status.
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