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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
October-December 2019
Volume 7 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 147-200

Online since Monday, November 18, 2019

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Effects of combined nicotine and caffeine on the rat skeletal muscles: A histological and immunohistochemical study p. 147
Faizah Alotaibi, Seham K Abounasef, Heba Fikry
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_1_19  
Background: Nicotine and caffeine are pharmacologically active substances that consumed widely in the whole world. Most of the nicotine users also consume caffeine. Smokers tend to drink more coffee than nonsmokers. It is important to characterize these substances with regard to their effects on the histological and immunohistological structure. Objectives: The objective of the study is to assess the impact of combined administration of nicotine and caffeine on histological structure of the skeletal muscle tissue in the adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty adult male Wistar rats with an average weight of 200–250 g were randomly divided into four equal groups: control, nicotine, caffeine, and combined (nicotine + caffeine). The diaphragm muscle was processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stain, histochemically by periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) and immunohistochemically by anti-CD68 antibodies. Results: After injected nicotine, thick basement membrane with apparent increase in the positive CD68 macrophages inbetween the diaphragm muscle fibers. After injected caffeine, there was an apparent accumulation of mononuclear cells around some fibers with decrease in the PAS positive fibers. Combined injected (nicotine + caffeine) group, some fibers exhibited deep acidophilic cytoplasm with flat peripheral nuclei and apparent increase of the CD68 positive cells. There was an increase in PAS positive material around fibers appearing as a thick basement membrane. Conclusions: The present study proved that caffeine and nicotine either taken alone or in combination have many negative impacts on the active type of skeletal muscles like diaphragm leading to degenerative changes that may affect their function.
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Effect of suramin on renal proximal tubular cells damage induced by cisplatin in rats (histological and immunohistochemical study) p. 153
Eman Ali El-Kordy
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_21_19  
Background: Renal toxicity is the most common complication of cispaltin therapy that has broad-spectrum antitumor activity against a variety of human solid tumor. Suramin, a Food and Drug Administration-approved old drug is a polysulfonated compound of napthylurea originally designed to treat trypanosomiasis. Aim: The current work aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of different doses of suramin against cisplatin-induced renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) damage. Material and Methods: Fifty adult male rats were used and divided into five equal groups. Group I served as a control, group II received suramin alone (10 mg/kg). Groups III, IV and V were administered cisplatin once (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) alone or combined with low dosage suramin (5 mg/kg) or high dosage suramin (10 mg/kg) once intravenously respectively. Results: Compared with control rats, cisplatin administration caused proximal tubules damage, RPTCs vacuolation with pyknotic nuclei, loss of brush border and widespread caspase-3 immunostaining. Cisplatin-induced RPTCs toxicity was further confirmed morphometrically (a significantly decreased proximal tubular epithelium height and increased mean number of caspase-3-immunopositive cells). These changes were accompanied by biochemical alteration manifested as a significant increase of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine. Simultaneous administration of high-dose but not low-dose suramin to the cisplatin-treated rats improved the deleterious morphological and morphometrical effects on RPTCs and restored the aforementioned biochemical parameters to control values. Conclusion: In conclusion suramin in a dose dependant manner protects RPTCs from damage induced by cisplatin.
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Protective effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum) extract against diabetic changes in adult male rat liver: Histological study p. 165
Khadija A Faddladdeen, Ahlam Abdulaziz Ojaimi
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_6_19  
Background: Diabetes mellitus could be result from disorders in insulin secretion or receptors, characterized by hyperglycemia. Natural antioxidants including pomegranate have hypoglycemic effect. Aim of the Work: The present research was designed to evaluate the possible protective role of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) against diabetic-induced hepatic complication. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight male Wistar rats, weighed 200–250 g and aged 3 months, were sorted into four groups: Group 1: Used as control, Group 2: Normal rats received PPE (200 mg/kg bw/day) given orally for 11 consecutive weeks. Group 3: Streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats, injected with 55 mg/kg bw of STZ, and Group 4: Normal rats received PPE for 11 weeks and then rats were injected with STZ (55 mg/kg/bw). Effectiveness of the PPE was assessed by measuring serum glucose and histopathology of liver tissue. Liver enzymes were also assayed. PPE was found to control diabetic hyperglycemia and decrease in body weight. Histological examination showed that pretreatment with PPE provided preservation against diabetes-induced hepatic histological changes (necrotic and apoptosis). Result: Alanine aminotransferase, alanine phosphatase, and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly elevated in Group 3 diabetics and decreased in Group 4 which confirmed histological finding. Conclusion: This study confirmed the hypothesized possible protective effect of PPE against diabetic-induced histological and functional alteration of rat liver and advised its use by diabetic patients.
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The possible protective role of barley seeds on the spleen after administration of glucocorticoids in adult albino rats: A histological and immunohistochemical study p. 171
Manal M Shehata, Heba M Saad Eldien, Fatma Y Meligy, Shadha Y Bahaidarh
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_47_18  
Background: Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the main treatment strategy in many autoimmune disease and inflammatory diseases; however, they have immunosuppressive effect on many organs. The barley seeds contain many antioxidant compounds, which may improve the antioxidant status and related physiological functions. Our aim in this work is to evaluate the possible protective role of barley seeds on some immune cells in the spleen against immunosuppressive effect of GCs in adult albino rats. Materials and Methods: Forty-five adult albino rats were equally divided into 3 groups. Group I: normal vehicle control (n = 15), Group II: steroid-treated animals (n = 15), and Group III: steroid/barley-treated group (n = 15). Specimens from spleen were processed for light and electron microscopy. Results: In steroid-treated group, the histological changes in white and red pulp were in the form of loss of architecture and wide empty spaces among the cells. Most of the cells showed degenerative change, dilatation of blood sinusoids, and deposition of fibrinoid material among the cells of the RP. However, multiple lysosomal bodies were observed in both dendritic and macrophage cells. These changes are improved in steroid/barley-treated group in the form of increasing the number and size of the lymphatic follicles. Most of the splenic cells regained normal structure. Dendritic cell marker CD86 and macrophage marker CD68 expression are increased. Conclusion: Barley protects the spleen tissues from steroid-induced structural changes; this could be mediated through its antioxidant effects, so barely is recommended as a healthy diet in patients consuming steroids.
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The spermatozoal ultrastructure of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir SinensisHighly accessed article p. 181
Jie Zeng, Shasha Peng, Shengwei Zhong, Hui Zhang
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_48_18  
Background: The Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) is an economically important aquatic species in China. The artificial breeding crabs are also increasing in number day by day. However, knowledge about spermatozoal organization of the crab is still very limited. Aims and Objectives: In the present study, the spermatozoal ultrastructure of the E. sinensis is illustrated for improving artificial breeding technique. Materials and Methods: The spermatozoa are observed by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Results: Spermatozoa are located in the lumen of seminiferous tubules. The spermatocytes and spermatids are observed in the wall of seminiferous tubules. The spermatophores are both present in the lumen of vas deferens and seminal vesicles. A mature spermatozoon consists of a central electron dense acrosome and a peripheral electron lucent nucleus within structures-organelles complex. The acrosome is divided into three zones, including inner acrosome zone, outer acrosome zone and zonal texture. The centre of acrosome is the perforatorium within parallel arranged perforatorial tubules along vertical axis. The highest electron dense operculum surrounds the head side of perforatorium. Conclusion: The ultrastructure of spermatozoa of E. sinensis is illustrated. In particular, the outermost part of the acrosome appears as concentric circles and is described as zonal texture.
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Cardiogenic differentiation of murine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells by 5-azacytidine: A follow-up In vitro study p. 185
Heba E. M. Sharaf Eldin, Marwa A. A. Ibrahim, Amany M. I. Mousa, Hala G Metwaly, Nadia F.E. Abo-Hassan
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_17_19  
Background: Cell-based therapy is a promising tool in the management of myocardial infarction. Aim of the Work: The aim of this study is to examine the in vitro potential differentiation of murine bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells into cardiomyocytes using 5-azacytidine after 1, 3, and 5 weeks and follow it up after 8 weeks. Materials and Methods: BM-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were extracted from the bones of adult albino rats. MSCs were induced with 10 μM 5-azacytidine for 24 h. The cells were examined after 1, 3, 5, and 8 weeks. Cell characterization with immunocytochemistry for detection of CD105, desmin, and T-troponin and transmission electron microscopy was performed. Results: The 5-azacytidine-induced MSCs showed light and electron microscopic histological characteristics resembling cardiomyocytes and progressively expressed the cardiac muscle-specific markers over the 1st, 3rd, and 5th weeks, yet by the 8th week, these parameters were significantly downregulated. Conclusion: Prolonged survival of 5-azacytidine-induced MSCs in culture beyond the 8th week resulted in loss of the newly acquired cardiomyocyte characteristics. It is not recommended to prolong the maintenance of 5-azacytidine-induced MSCs in culture on the hope of increasing its cardiogenic potentiality beyond 5 weeks.
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Lipsticks: The microbial cellar: An original study p. 194
K Siya, Jubin Thomas, RB Vinod Kumar, Ajish M Saji, Amal K Iype, S Akhil
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_14_19  
Background: Microbial contamination of cosmetics products is of incredible significance since it will not only cause significant health hazardous but also act as a potential source of infections. Contamination will cause spoilage of the item and when pathogenic they become a genuine threat for its users. Aim: To evaluate the bacterial contamination in regularly used lipsticks. Objectives: To identify the pathogenic organism present in the lipsticks.To understand the potential complications of the organisms identified. Comparing the microbial count in used and new lipsticks.
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CASE REPORT Top

Increased copy number of anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene signal in lung carcinomas: Is it significant? p. 198
Saumya Shukla, Nuzhat Husain, Kiran Preet Malhotra, Vandana Tiwari
DOI:10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_9_19  
The anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene re-arrangement which is present in 3-5% cases of non small cell lung cancer is a somatic gene re-arrangement. The gold standard for the identification of this gene re-arrangement is fluorescence in situ hybridization. Many variant hybridization patterns have been documented. We present a case of polysomy of ALK gene in the absence of ALK gene re-arrangement in a 45 year old female who presented with brain metastasis. This is a rare case of polysomy of ALK gene reported in a non small cell lung carcinoma. It may be indicative of a worse prognosis and may predict high metastatic potential in these tumors.
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