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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-March 2020
Volume 8 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-36

Online since Wednesday, February 5, 2020

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Granular cell tumor of thyroid: Challenging pitfalls and mimickers in diagnosis p. 1
Murouj Almaghrabi, Hatim Almaghrabi, Haneen Al-Maghrabi
Mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid are extremely rare. Only few isolated cases of primary thyroid granular cell tumor (GrCT) have been reported. The anatomic location of this lesion plays an important role in the differential diagnosis. It is well-known that GrCT commonly involves the head-and-neck region, lower extremity, nuchal region, chest wall, and internal viscera such as the gastrointestinal tract. However, primary GrCT of the thyroid are unexpected and might lead to misdiagnosis, especially with pathological diagnosis limitations such as frozen section and fine-needle aspiration. We believe that it is important to establish a good differential diagnosis because of its ability to simulate the appearance of invasive carcinoma, especially in cases lacking tissue block examination. In this paper, we try to focus on clinical, radiological potential characteristics, and the differential diagnosis of the tumor.
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Effect of protease-activated receptor-2-activating peptide on guinea pig airway resistance and isolated tracheal strips p. 7
Magda M Hagras, Fatemah O Kamel
Purpose: Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are a family of G-protein-coupled receptors distributed in a number of tissues. PAR-2 is expressed on airway epithelium and smooth muscles and overexpressed under pathological conditions, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the role of PAR-2 in airways has not yet been defined. In this study, we investigated the role of PAR-2-activating peptide (SLIGRL) on histamine-induced bronchoconstriction and the mechanisms underlying the bronchoprotective effect both in vivo and in vitro. Materials and Methods: The effect of SLIGRL was tested in vivo using histamine-induced bronchoconstriction in the guinea pig and in vitro using isolated tracheal spiral strips. Results: In vivo pretreatment with SLIGRL significantly reduced the histamine-induced increased bronchoconstriction. Neither propranolol nor vagotomy abolished the inhibitory effect of SLIGRL. Furthermore, indomethacin or glibenclamide did not antagonize the inhibitory response to SLIGRL. In isolated tracheal spiral strips in vitro, SLIGRL did not affect the contractile response to acetylcholine or potassium chloride; however, histamine-induced contraction was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate the protective effect of SLIGRL in airways; however, this effect appears to be mediated independently of prostanoids, nitric oxide, circulating adrenaline, ATP-sensitive K + channels, and vagal stimulation.
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Prevalence of multidrug-Resistant bacteria on mobile phone surface p. 14
Savio Rousseau Rozario, Hafizur Rahman, A N. M. Fakhruddin, Khondkar Ayaz Rabbani
Background: With the introduction of multiple uses of mobile phones, including social networking sites, people are being addicted to the device. Most people carry the device to places which are loaded with possible pathogenic microorganisms such as toilets and washrooms, enabling the device to act as a potent fomite. Aims and Objective: This study aims to determine the presence of potential pathogenic and multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria on the surface of mobile phones used by different occupational groups. It also aims to identify a possible relationship between mobile phone usage in toilets and mobile phone usage while eating. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and sixty-eight interviewees belonging to four different occupational groups; 204 students, 24 security staffs, 21 food vendors, and 19 cleaning staff participated in the study in a university, of which 67.54% (n = 181/268) admitted to carry their mobile phones into toilets and 60.07% (n = 161/268) of the total respondents stated that they used their mobile phones while being confined in toilets. Results: MDR bacterial presence were observed for both case (90.54%, n = 67/74) and control (73.07%, n = 19/26) study of the 100 swabbed samples and the association between usage of the mobile phone while being confined in toilets and while eating by the same respondent were statistically significant (P = 0.00 ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: The study signifies that mobile phones are carriers of pathogenic and MDR bacteria. Therefore, cleanliness and hygiene issues should be prioritized with an awareness to minimize or restrict the use of mobile phones in unfavorable and unhygienic environments such as toilets and washrooms.
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Evaluation of Ki-67 expression in oral submucous fibrosis and its correlation with clinical and histopathological features p. 20
Asif Iqbal, Sandhya Tamgadge, Avinash Tamgadge, Treville Pereira, Sourab Kumar, Siddarth Acharya, Abhishek Jadhav
Objectives: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a potentially malignant disorder. Although it shows atrophic epithelium, it has a high proliferative capacity. Therefore, this study correlates the Ki-67. (The name “ki” is derived from the city of origin [Kiel, Germany] expression with functional grading and epithelial thickness in OSMF). Methods: The study group comprised of thirty patients of OSMF, divided randomly into Group A, Group B, Group C, and Group D as per mouth opening (functional staging). Five participants without OSMF formed the negative control group. The positive control group comprised of five patients of diagnosed cases of squamous cell carcinoma. All the sections of biopsy were subjected for hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry staining and observed for expression of Ki-67. Epithelial thickness was evaluated using image analysis software of Leica research microscope. Images were analyzed by three independent observers who were blindfolded. All the findings were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: In the present study, as the functional staging increased, the Ki-67 expression also increased. Ki-67 expression was highest in severe functional staging/severely decreased mouth opening (100.78) and is least in mild functional staging/mild decreased mouth opening (10.39). However, there was no significant correlation between epithelial thickness and functional staging/mouth opening (P = 0.05). Conclusion: A decrease in functional staging (mouth opening) showed a greater expression of Ki-67, and there was no significant correlation between functional staging and epithelial thickness.
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A rare cause of cellulitis: Photobacterium damselae p. 25
Kamal Kant Sahu, Akil Adrian Sherif, Raul Davaro
Photobacterium damselae, a marine bacterium from Vibrionaceae family, is a well-known primary pathogen for fish, mollusks, crustaceans, etc. Humans may also get infected accidentally during exposure to marine animals or seawater. In addition to economic concern for aquaculture and fish industry, it is also a microbe of concern for human beings, as it has potential to cause lethal infections. Necrotic fasciitis is the most fulminant form.
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Mycobacterium Avium complex: A rare cause of pancytopenia in HIV infection p. 27
Kamal Kant Sahu, Ajay Kumar Mishra, Amos Lal, George M Abraham
Opportunistic infections in HIV infection are challenging to diagnose and treat, especially when the prevalence of disease is rare. Mycobacterial infections can have debilitating morbidity and mortality in HIV individuals if prompt diagnosis and treatment is not done. A 33-year-old African-American female presented for the complaints of easy fatigability, unintentional weight loss, and diarrhea of 3-month duration. Initial laboratory results suggested bicytopenia; however, there was an initial delay of a couple of months in evaluation because of her poor compliance. A final diagnosis of HIV with a low CD4 count of 9 cells/mm3 and disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection was made. She was started on anti-MAC therapy, followed by antiretroviral therapy however soon succumbed to her illness.
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Histopathology of oral submucous fibrosis in third dimension with an additional note on hypothesis of epithelial atrophy p. 31
Sandhya Tamgadge, Avinash Tamgadge
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a potentially malignant disorder, characterized by progressive fibrosis of the lamina propria and underlying connective tissue. It has high chances of malignant transformation. It is caused by betel nut which is very common habit among Indians. Thus, regular monitoring of histopathological changes is mandatory by physicians, private practitioners, and oral pathologists. Therefore, histopathological changes should be understood by everyone who is into health care. This article is a preliminary report on three-dimensional (3D) images and 3D-animation video of histopathological aspect of OSMF designed by author herself, for better understanding of histopathological aspect, which has never been reported so far. Additional hypothesis on epithelial atrophy have also been proposed.
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Extramedullary deposits in leukemia: Out of blood but not out of mind p. 35
Kamal Kant Sahu, Kundan Mishra, Pankaj Malhotra
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