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REVIEW ARTICLE
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Factors involved in relapse of multiple sclerosis


 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Fatemah Omar Kamel,
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 42751, Jeddah 21551
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_59_18

Multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic autoimmune disorder, affects the central nervous system (CNS). It affects the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerve, leading to problems with vision, balance, muscle control, and other basic bodily functions. MS relapse (MSR) involves an acute inflammatory demyelinating reaction within the CNS. This review focuses on the main factors involved in MSR based on a detailed literature search. Evidence suggests that MSR is influenced by age, sex, pregnancy, serum levels of Vitamin D, interactions between genetic and environmental factors, and infectious diseases. Many of these factors are modifiable and require the attention of patients and health-care providers if favorable outcomes are to be realized. Identification of MSR risk factors can help in the development of therapies that could be used to manage MS and MSR.


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