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Changing frequency of glomerular diseases in Western Saudi Arabia: A 26-year experience

 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Sawsan Mohammad Jalalah,
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_64_19

Introduction: The frequency of glomerulonephritis (GN) is reported to be changing in the world over the past four decades. Few studies arise from the western region of Saudi Arabia. Aims: The aim of this study was to address the frequency of primary GN (1ry GN) and secondary GN (2ry GN) over a period of 26 years in the western region of Saudi Arabia and compare to previous data from other regions of the country. Subjects and Methods: The records of adult renal biopsies, 448 1ry GN and 263 2ry GN, are analyzed. Frequencies of GN subtypes are compared for period 1 (1988–19999) and period 2 (2000–2013). Results: Postinfectious GN (PIGN) and minimal change disease (MCD) show significant changes (P ≤ 0.05). PIGN increased to 6.5% in period 2 from 0% in period 1. MCD decreased to 5.9% in period 2 from 13.5% in period 1. Membranous GN is the most common 1ry GN for both periods with similar percentages (23.8% and 24.2%, respectively). Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGSC) is the second in period 2 (23%); immunoglobulin A nephropathy at 9.6% became the third, and MCD is the last place instead of the fourth in period 1. Lupus nephritis is the most common 2ry GN. Pooled data from Saudi studies show FSGSC the most common 1ry GN in both periods. Conclusions: The western region of Saudi Arabia presents with a different 1ry GN pattern than the rest of the country that is likely attributed to its unique geographical and environmental characteristics.

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