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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2017| July-September  | Volume 5 | Issue 3  
    Online since February 8, 2018

 
 
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EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
Bio-tea prevents membrane destabilization during Isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury
Reema Orison Lobo, BK Chandrasekhar Sagar, Chandrakala K Shenoy
July-September 2017, 5(3):146-154
DOI:10.1016/j.jmau.2016.09.001  PMID:30023249
The present study was undertaken to determine the membrane-stabilizing effect of Bio-tea in the prevention of myocardial injury caused by isoproterenol in rats. The efficiency of Bio-tea pretreatment was compared against black tea pretreatment and the positive control (rats with isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction) and negative control (normal control rats). For this purpose, biochemical analysis of the in vivo antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and reduced glutathione), glycoprotein components (hexose, hexosamine, sialic acid, and fucose), lipids (total, ester and free cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids), and transmembrane protein activities (Na+/K+ ATPase, Ca2+ ATPase, and Mg2+ ATPase) was carried out along with the histological and ultrastructural study of the myocardial tissue. Induction of myocardial infarction using isoproterenol resulted in a significant decrease in tissue antioxidants and an increase in the levels of total, ester and free cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and glycoprotein components in plasma and heart. The phospholipid content showed an increase in plasma and a simultaneous decrease in the heart tissue, while the Na+/K+ ATPase activity decreased and Ca2+ ATPase and Mg2+ ATPase activities increased, resulting in destabilization of the membranes. Pretreatment with Bio-tea was able to bring these components to near normal, indicating its reactive-oxygen-species-scavenging, lipid-lowering, membrane-stabilizing and glycoprotein-modulating effects and lending credibility to the regular use of Bio-tea.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Literature review on imperfection of composite laminated plates
Osama Mohammed Elmardi Suleiman Khayal
July-September 2017, 5(3):119-122
DOI:10.1016/j.jmau.2017.01.001  PMID:30023245
A composite material can be defined as a combination of two or more materials that gives better properties than those of the individual components used alone. In contrast to metallic alloys, each material retains its separate chemical, physical, and mechanical properties. The two constituents are reinforcement and a matrix. The main advantages of composite materials are their high strength and stiffness combined with low density when compared to classical materials. Micromechanical approach is found to be more suitable for the analysis of composite materials because it studies the volume proportions of the constituents for the desired lamina stiffness and strength. It is found that the manufacturing processes are responsible of many defects which may arise in fibers, matrix and lamina. These defects, if they exist include misalignment of fibers, cracks in matrix, non uniform distribution of the fibers in the matrix, voids in fibers and matrix, delaminated regions, and initial stress in the lamina as a result of its manufacture and further treatment. The above mentioned defects tend to propagate as the lamina is loaded causing an accelerated rate of failure. The experimental and theoretical results in this case tend to differ. Hence, due to the limitations necessary in the idealization of the lamina components, the properties estimated should be proved experimentally.
  2 1,065 79
Histological effect of nicotine on adrenal zona fasciculata and the effect of grape seed extract with or without withdrawal of nicotine
Hanaa Attia Khalaf, Fatma M Ghoneim, Eetmad A Arafat, El-Hassanen M Mahmoud
July-September 2017, 5(3):123-131
DOI:10.1016/j.jmau.2016.11.001  PMID:30023246
Cigarette smoking is harmful to the health of both smokers and nonsmokers. It is a major cause of death. This study aimed to investigate the structural changes in the zona fasciculata of albino rats caused by nicotine and the protective effect of grape seeds with or without the stoppage of nicotine administration. Thirty-five adult male rats were used and equally divided into five groups: negative and positive control groups (Groups I and II), nicotine-treated group (Group III), nicotine- and grape seed extract-treated group (Group IV), and nicotine withdrawal and grape seed extract-treated group (Group V). Adrenal glands were dissected and prepared for histological studies. The majority of zona fasciculata cells of Group III showed striking changes in terms of swelling of the cells with marked cytoplasmic vacuolation, many pyknotic nuclei, and increased immunoexpression to caspase 3 antibodies. By electron microscopy, a marked increase in lipid deposition with its appearance in the capillary between zona fasciculata cells was noticed. Heterochromatic nuclei and dilated smooth endoplasmic reticulum were noted. Degenerated mitochondria and some mitochondria that had cavitation with a progressive loss of their cristae were seen. The zona fasciculata cells of Group IV were partially improved, while in Group V, those cells showed complete improvement. We can conclude that nicotine causes severe histological changes in zona fasciculata cells. Grape seed extract can partially ameliorate these changes, and complete recovery is achieved with grape seed extract after the stoppage of nicotine administration.
  1 1,109 71
Histomorphological, histochemical, and ultrastructural studies on the stomach of the adult African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)
Usama Kamal Moawad, Ashraf Sayed Awaad, Mohamed Gomaa Tawfiek
July-September 2017, 5(3):155-166
DOI:10.1016/j.jmau.2016.08.002  PMID:30023250
This study investigated the morphology, histochemistry, and ultrastructure of the adult African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) stomach in order to detect the functional aspects involved in gross and histological studies to get detailed information about the precise cellular structures of different cells lining the stomach. Forty fishes were used in this study. The stomach is a J-shaped sac divided into three regions: (1) cardiac; (2) fundic; and (3) pyloric. Histologically, its wall is composed of four tunics: (1) mucosa; (2) submucosa; (3) muscularis externa; and (4) serosa. The mucosa of the three portions showed thick longitudinal folds lined with simple high columnar cells containing oval basally located nuclei. These cells contained apically located mucosubstances that reacted positively with Periodic–acid Schiff and negatively with Alcian blue stains. Many gastric pits were formed by invaginations of the mucosal layer into the underlying lamina propria and continuous with the openings of the gastric glands. Only the cardiac and fundic regions contained mucosal glands. The fundic glands were lined with oxynticopeptic cells. Enteroendocrine cells were distributed in the gastric wall within the epithelial cells of the gastric mucosa and gland. The lamina propria composed of extensive collagen fibers, many blood vessels, and nerves. Strands of smooth muscle fibers situated between the lamina propria and the submucosa forming lamina muscularis mucosa. Loose connective tissue was the main component of the tunica submucosa. The pyloric portion had the thickest musclosa and the serosal coat of the stomach was formed of loose connective tissue containing blood vessels.
  1 1,032 81
Microscopic study on colonization and antimicrobial property of endophytic bacteria associated with ethnomedicinal plants of Meghalaya
Fenella Mary War Nongkhlaw, SR Joshi
July-September 2017, 5(3):132-139
DOI:10.1016/j.jmau.2016.09.002  PMID:30023247
Microscopic visualization using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can provide a better understanding of endophytic colonization within ethnomedicinal plants. Bacterial endophytes were found attached to the host cell wall colonizing the aerenchyma and intercellular spaces of the epidermis and outer cortex except the vascular system. Colonization was non-uniform as single cells, doublets or in the form of microcolonies. Analysis of in vivo antibacterial action of the methanolic extracts of the isolated endophytic bacteria against Gram-positive, Streptococcus pyogenes MTCC 1925 and Gram-negative, Salmonella enterica ser. paratyphi MTCC735 pathogens has revealed the morphological damages in the tested pathogens respectively, under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Detached cell wall and cell burst were observed in Streptococcus pyogenes where as, cell blisters were shown in Salmonella enterica ser. paratyphi. The study on bacterial endophyte colonization process is important to better predict how endophytes interact with their host and establish themselves in the plant environment by procuring biocontrol activity.
  - 972 91
Histophysiological and surface ultrastructural studies of the saccus vasculosus of Notopterus chitala (Hamilton)
Padmanabha Chakrabarti, Rubina Khatun
July-September 2017, 5(3):140-145
DOI:10.1016/j.jmau.2016.10.001  PMID:30023248
We investigated the cytoarchitecture and surface ultrastructural characteristics of different cells lining the epithelium of the saccus vasculosus of Notopterus chitala (Hamilton, 1822). The saccus vasculosus, the richly vascularized reddish, sac like organ is situated on the ventral aspect of the diencephalon just behind the pituitary gland. Histologically, the saccus vasculosus consisted of several loculi lined with a heterogeneous population of a large number of specialized coronet cells and a smaller number of alternately arranged supporting cells. The loculi were densely surrounded by blood sinusoids. The loculi opened into several collecting channels that united and ultimately drained into the third ventricle of the brain. The coronet cells possessed central or basal nuclei and an apical globular protrusion. Under scanning electron microscopy, the coronet cells were variable in shape with prominent nuclei. The supporting cells were triangular in shape and placed in between the coronet cells. The apical parts of the coronet cells had different shapes of globular protrusions with distinct stalks. Intense silver stain was noted in the terminal end of the coronet cells and nerves were attached with blood vessels. Under scanning electron microscopy observation, nerve fibers of different caliber were attached to the coronet cells and blood vessels. The various cells of the saccus vasculosus in N. chitala were correlated with their functional significance.
  - 828 55