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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 1: Histopathological photomicrographs of gill of Oreochromis niloticus under control condition (C), glyphosate-treated laboratory condition, glyphosate-treated field condition. (a) Normal structure of primary gill lamellae and secondary lamella under light microscopy (C, ×400). (b) Curling (square), congestion of blood vessel (arrowhead), distortion of chloride (oval) and pillar cells (broken arrow (GL, ×1000). (c) Atrophy and hypertrophy in interlamellar space between secondary gill lamellae (arrow) and damage in pillar cells (broken arrow) under light microscopy (GF, ×400). (d) Scanning electron microscopy showing normal arrangement of gill rakers with primary gill lamellae and stratified epithelial cells on the primary gill lamellae (C, ×200). (e) Gill epithelium showing loss of microridges over stratified epithelial cells (arrow) and mucin droplets (M) under scanning electron microscopy (GL, ×3000). (f) Almost normal appearance of microridge in stratified epithelial cells and excess mucins (M) droplets under scanning electron microscopic (GF, ×3000). (g) Gill epithelial cell under transmission electron microscopy showing normal chloride cell, pavement cells with prominent mitochondria (M) with apical pore (square) (C, ×1000). (h) Degenerative chloride cells (bold arrow) and severe vacuolation (broken arrow) under transmission electron microscopic (GL, ×6300). (i) Vacuolation (broken arrow) and dilated mitochondria (bold arrow) under transmission electron microscopy (GF, ×6300)

Figure 1: Histopathological photomicrographs of gill of <i>Oreochromis niloticus</i> under control condition (C), glyphosate-treated laboratory condition, glyphosate-treated field condition. (a) Normal structure of primary gill lamellae and secondary lamella under light microscopy (C, ×400). (b) Curling (square), congestion of blood vessel (arrowhead), distortion of chloride (oval) and pillar cells (broken arrow (GL, ×1000). (c) Atrophy and hypertrophy in interlamellar space between secondary gill lamellae (arrow) and damage in pillar cells (broken arrow) under light microscopy (GF, ×400). (d) Scanning electron microscopy showing normal arrangement of gill rakers with primary gill lamellae and stratified epithelial cells on the primary gill lamellae (C, ×200). (e) Gill epithelium showing loss of microridges over stratified epithelial cells (arrow) and mucin droplets (M) under scanning electron microscopy (GL, ×3000). (f) Almost normal appearance of microridge in stratified epithelial cells and excess mucins (M) droplets under scanning electron microscopic (GF, ×3000). (g) Gill epithelial cell under transmission electron microscopy showing normal chloride cell, pavement cells with prominent mitochondria (M) with apical pore (square) (C, ×1000). (h) Degenerative chloride cells (bold arrow) and severe vacuolation (broken arrow) under transmission electron microscopic (GL, ×6300). (i) Vacuolation (broken arrow) and dilated mitochondria (bold arrow) under transmission electron microscopy (GF, ×6300)