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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 31-38

The effect of intra-articular versus intravenous injection of mesenchymal stem cells on experimentally-Induced knee joint osteoarthritis

Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Somaya Hosny
Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_2_20

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Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative debilitating disease, primarily affects joints, particularly weight-bearing areas. The surface layer of the articular cartilage breaks down and wears away leading to rubbing of bones, pain, swelling, and joint stiffness. Aim and Objectives: This study investigates the possible therapeutic effects of intra-articular versus intravenous injection of umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) against mono-iodoacetate-induced OA of the knee joints in male albino rats, using histological and immunohistochemical techniques. Materials and Methods: Thirty male adult albino rats were randomized into five groups as follows: Group (I) and (II): Served as control. Group (III): Osteoarthritic group. Group IV: Osteoarthritic and intraarticularly-injected MSCs. Group V: Osteoarthritic and intravenously-injected MSCs. Animals were sacrificed 1 month after stem cell injection, the right knee was prepared for histological techniques (Hematoxylin and Eosin and Toluidine blue stains) and immunohistochemical technique (Bax stain). Prussian blue stain was used to assess homing of MSCs in Groups IV and V. Results: Knee joint surface was irregular, fissured, and fragmented in Group III. In Groups IV and V, affected area was filled with newly formed tissue. Toluidine blue showed a decrease in matrix staining in Group III compared to both control and MSCs-treated groups. Chondrocytes in Group III showed strong Bax immunoreactivity and this reaction decreased in Group IV and V; however, Group V immunoreactivity was more than Group IV. Prussian blue stain showed labeled UCB-MSCs in many chondrocytes in Group IV and few chondrocytes in Group V. Conclusion: Intraarticularly-injected UCB-MSCs showed better healing of knee OA than intravenously-injected UCB-MSCs.

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