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   Table of Contents - Current issue
April-June 2021
Volume 9 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 47-102

Online since Saturday, June 12, 2021

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An overview of the perspective of cellular autophagy: Mechanism, regulation, and the role of autophagy dysregulation in the pathogenesis of diseases p. 47
Yasser M Alharbi, Abdulhadi I Bima, Ayman Z Elsamanoudy
Autophagy is a cellular process that eliminates unnecessary cytoplasmic materials, such as long-age proteins, destroyed organelles, and foreign microorganisms. Macroautophagy (MaA), chaperone-mediated autophagy, and microautophagy are the three main types of autophagy. It is regulated by the integration of signaling from the AMPK and mTOR-ULK1 pathways. Autophagy plays a physiological role in health, and its dysregulation could be a pathophysiologic mechanism in different disease conditions. In the current study, we reviewed papers of Google Scholar database, PubMed, PubMed Central, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, and MedlinePlus with no time limitation and a recent World Health Organization report. In the current review, it could be concluded that autophagy plays many physiological functions, including immune system modulation, and regulates different cellular processes such as metabolism, protein synthesis, and cellular transportation. Dysregulation of autophagy is implicated in tumorigenesis, aging, age-related neurodegeneration, and endothelial dysfunctions. Autophagy dysregulation is also implicated in the newly discovered CoV-COVID-19 pathogenesis.
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Age estimation with cemental annulation using light, phase contrast and polarized microscopy p. 55
L Pradeep, Ganganna Kokila, Pillai Arun Gopinathan, Shwetha Guruswamy, Salroo Humaira Nazir, Ananjan Chatterjee
Introduction: In forensic science, the determination of age plays a vital role in the identification of bodies and persons associated with crimes. Teeth are frequently better conserved than any other human remains, so their use for identifying age at death is vital. The root portion of the teeth is covered by a thin calcified layer called cementum, the annulations of which is considered to be helpful in age estimation. The objective of the study was to ascertain and compare the accuracy and efficiency of age estimation between light, polarized, and phase-contrast microscopy in the ground and decalcified sections of the tooth stained with hematoxylin and eosin by light microscopy and picrosirius red (PSR) by polarized microscopy. Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted teeth were collected and stored in a solution of 10% formalin. The middle one-third portion of the root was used, later sectioned into two halves using carborundum disc. One-half of it was used to prepare ground sections, which was studied with light, polarized, and phase-contrast microscopy. The other half was decalcified with 10% formic acid, processed, and two sections of 5 -μm thickness were prepared. One was stained with PSR stain and the second section was stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stain, One was stained with PSR stain and the second section was stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stain. Statistical analysis was performed using Z-test and Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: No statistically significant difference was observed between actual and calculated age in the ground sections, while there was a statistically significant difference observed between actual and calculated age in decalcified sections stained with H and E and PSR. A strong positive correlation was observed between actual and calculated age by Karl Pearson correlation coefficient test. Conclusion: Cemental annulation and phase contrast microscopy can be reliably utilized in forensic science to establishing age, especially among young and middle age group individuals.
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Scanning electron microscopy of vitellogenic oocytes and spawned eggs of the portunid crab Charybdis hellerii (Crustacea-Brachyura) (Milne Edwards, 1867) p. 61
Shaikha Mohammed Al-Kandari, Sohier S El-Sherif, Sherifa S Hamed
Background: The portunid crab Charybdis hellerii is an economically critical aquatic species in the Mediterranean region. Several investigators have reported scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations on some crustacean's eggs' morphology. Going through the previous studies, knowledge regarding the morphology of C. hellerii. vitellogenic oocytes and spawned egg membranes are not available. Aims and Objectives: In the present study, an attempt has been made to describe the morphology and the structure of the membranes of vitellogenic oocytes and the newly spawned eggs to provide necessary information for further studies on the reproductive and evolutionary biology of the crab C. hellerii. Materials and Methods: Samples of ripe pinkish orange ovaries of non-ovigarous females and the spawned incubated eggs of ovigerous females with orange and grey spawns were processed for scanning electron microscopy. The prepared samples were examined in a Zeiss DSM 940 scanning electron microscope. Results: The present SEM study revealed that, vitellogenic oocytes are highly packed with yolk inclusions, which appear to be embedded in a definite acellular matrix and surrounded by a distinct chorion, which is pierced by several pores. The follicle cells appear polygonal in shape and interconnected through thin lateral projections and strongly associated with vitellogenic oocytes. The brooded fertilized eggs are attached through a marked stalk (funiculus) and surrounded by three distinct envelopes, which showed specific ornamentations and variations in their surface topography. The outer envelope coarsely wrinkled, while the middle envelope showed finely wrinkled ornamentation, and the inner envelope appeared with its characteristic spongy, porous appearance. Conclusions: This study denotes a significant difference between mature vitellogenic oocytes inside the ripe ovary and the spawned ova. The differences have been shown in the structure and external ornamentation of their surrounding membranes. Unlike the vitellogenic oocytes, the spawned ova were surrounded by three distinct layers, which are differ in their surface architecture. Such membrane architecture is species specific characteristic and has been thought to be an adaptive feature for brooded fertilized eggs to survive from stressful environmental conditions.
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Nerve and glial cell expressions in the testes and epididymides of different age groups of cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus) p. 67
Jamiu Oyewole Omirinde, Samuel Gbadebo Olukole, Bankole Olusiji Oke
Purpose: This study was conducted to examine the variations in the expressions of neuronal and glial cell markers in the testes and epididymides of different age groups of cane rat using histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. Method: Thirty (32) healthy domesticated male cane rats were used for this investigation. The rats were divided into four groups (prepubertal [≤4 months], pubertal (>4 ≤12 months), adult (>12 ≤30 months), and aged (>30 months)] of 8 animals each. Subsequent to anesthesia and intracardiac perfusion of the rats with 10% buffered formalin, testes were harvested and preliminary assessment of nervous and glial structures was determined using the Golgi technique. Specific immunolocalization was done using the anti-neurofilament (NF-20) and anti-glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) for the expressions of neuronal and astrocyte-like cells, respectively. Result: Neuronal and astrocyte-like structures as revealed by the Golgi procedure were demonstrated in the tunica albuginea and interstitium of the testes as well as in the periductal muscle coat and epididymal interstitium of the caput down to the caudal segments. Golgi signal intensities of the expressions in both testes and epididymides increased with age advancement. Immunolocalization of the nerve structures and glial cells tallied with the Golgi results. However, NF signal intensity was significantly higher in the adult relative to others. Similarly, GFAP signal intensity increased with age increment. Conclusion: This study has shown that the variation in the expression of neuronal and glial cells in the testis and epididymis of the cane rat could be associated with increased reproductive reproductive activity.
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Architectural and ultrastructural variations of human leukocyte-rich platelet-rich fibrin and injectable platelet-rich fibrin p. 76
Sharmila Jasmine, Annamalai Thangavelu, Rajapandiyan Krishnamoorthy, Khalid E Alzahrani, Mohammad A Alshuniaber
Background: Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) architecture and ultrastructure plays a crucial role in regulating and coordinating the cellular functions and provides a physical architecture, mechanical stability, and biochemical cues necessary for tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis. No study consciously reported the variation in architecture, ultrastructure, and morphology of leukocyte-rich PRF (L-PRF) and injectable PRF (i-PRF). Objective: Hence, the present study was aimed to evaluate the fibrin architecture, ultrastructure, and cell contents of autologous L-PRF and i-PRF. Materials and Methods: The autologous L-PRF and i-PRF were prepared from blood samples of healthy donors. The morphological and structural variations were assessed by histopathology, atomic force microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscope, and field emission scanning electron microscope. Results: Disparity was found on architecture and ultrastructure of L-PRF and i-PRF fibrin network. The variation in platelet and leukocyte concentration attributed to the fibrin conformational changes. L-PRF shows thick fibrins with rough surface, whereas in i-PRF, smooth thin fibrins. Conclusions: The current study revealed that there is heterogeneity between L-PRF and i-PRF fibrin matrix architecture, ultrastructure, platelets, leukocytes, and the fibrin content. These speculate that the diameter, width, roughness, and smoothness of fibrin fibers, pore size, and shapes of L-PRF and i-PRF matrix may initiate and mediate the scaffold functions differently.
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Crescents in kidney biopsy – What do they imply? A clinicopathologic study of 40 cases in a tertiary care center p. 81
Shivangi Chauhan, Sonal Jain, Neha Garg, Sonali Dixit, Sonal Sharma
Introduction: Crescents in glomeruli mean proliferation of parietal epithelium of Bowman's capsule with the presence of macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, fibrin, and collagen. When crescents are present in >50% of nonfibrosed glomeruli, it is called crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN). The presence of crescents is indicative of poorer prognosis. CGN can be pauci immune (PI), immune complex mediated (ICM), and anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease. Aim: The aim was to study the clinicopathological spectrum of CGN over a period of 10 years in our center. Materials and Methods: Forty kidney biopsies with the presence of crescents over a period of 5 years were retrieved retrospectively from the histopathology records of the department of pathology. The clinical history, laboratory parameters, histopathology report, and the direct immunofluorescence (DIF) findings were analyzed. Results: Totally 40 cases had crescents on light microscopy. Out of these, 17 cases qualified for CGN. The mean age of the patients was 20 years. Nephritic syndrome was the most common presentation in these 17 cases. The mean creatinine level was 3.55 mg/dL. PI (7/17, 41.1%) was the most common category, followed by ICM (6/17, 35.2%) and anti-GBM (4/17, 23.5%). Out of the ICM, two cases were of IgA nephropathy with crescents and one of lupus with crescents. Conclusion: PI is the most common type of CGN. DIF examination is essential for exact categorization of CGN. Kidney biopsy in these cases can guide management and benefit patients with timely initiation of aggressive therapy.
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Histopathological study of verrucous lesions and its mimics p. 86
Kriti Chauhan, Vikram Jassal, Gazalpreet Kaur Sara, Vijay Bansal, Varun Hatwal
Context: Verrucous lesions pose a diagnostic challenge to the clinicians as well as pathologists. There are few discrete histological features which if looked for carefully can help differentiate them. Aim: The aim of this study is to bring into light the histological features of several verrucous lesions occuring on skin and mucosa lined by squamous epithelium. Settings and Design: This is a 6-month prospective and retrospective study done on cutaneous and squamous mucosal biopsies with an exophytic pattern of growth. Clinical details along with the diagnosis were retrieved from the case files and correlated with the histological diagnosis. Subjects and Methods: Only hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections were studied. Results: Of the 35 cases, 10 (28.5%) were female and 25 (71.4%) were male. The size of the lesions ranged from 0.5 cm to 6.5 cm. The site of lesions included anogenital (8 cases, 22.8%), cutaneous (24 cases, 68.5%), and oral mucosal (3 cases, 8.5%) areas. Warts were found to be the most common lesions (14 cases, 40%), of which cutaneous warts comprised 9 cases (64%) and genital warts comprised 5 cases (36%). It was observed that benign warts were clinically confused with other rare cutaneous lesions such as polyps and cysts. Malignant counterpart of a wart or condyloma called as warty carcinoma was not known to many and was mistaken for a conventional squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Histology is of utmost importance in differentiating the several verrucous lesions because sometimes clinical appearance may mimic one another.
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Calcifying epithelial odontogenic cyst of maxilla: Report of a case and review and discussion on the terminology and classification p. 98
Ajay Chandran, S Nachiappan, Rajkumar Selvakumar, Srikanth Gunturu, U Vijaya Lakshmi, K Bharathi, J Suresh Babu, C Swarnalatha, Abhishek Singh Nayyar
A cyst is defined as a pathological cavity which may or may not have an epithelial lining and which has a fluid, semi-fluid, or gaseous contents and is not formed by accumulation of pus. The calcifying epithelial odontogenic cyst (CEOC) was first reported by Gorlin et al. in 1962. At that time, it was classified as a cyst related to the odontogenic apparatus. It was later renamed as calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) in the World Health Organization classification devised in 2005 due to its histological complexity, morphological diversity, and aggressive proliferation. CCOT was later recognized by numerous names including Gorlin cyst, calcifying ghost cell odontogenic cyst, and/or dentinogenic ghost cell tumor. It has a peak incidence during the second and third decades of life and does not demonstrate any gender predilection. Radiographically, CEOC may appear as a unilocular or multilocular radiolucent lesion with either well-circumscribed or poorly-defined margins and may also be observed in association with unerupted teeth. Calcification is an important radiographic feature for the interpretation of CEOC/CCOT. The typical histopathological features of CEOC include a fibrous wall and lining of odontogenic epithelium with either columnar or cuboidal basal cells resembling ameloblasts. The treatment of choice for CEOC is conservative surgical enucleation, however, recurrence is also not found to be uncommon. Herein, we are reporting a case of the same in a 21-year-old female which was a great dilemma during the diagnostic work-up.
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